US – Legacy for Us Today: Elwha

Lesson Plans – Elementary School

3 | US-Legacy for Us Today

Oral Tradition and the Survival of Tribal Lifeways

US History Curriculum
OSPI Tribal Sovereignty Curriculum for the Social Studies

Historical Era

Time Immemorial – 1770 |1770 – 1780 | 1780 – Present

Social Studies GLEs:

Grade 3: 1.1.2, 3.2.2, 3.3.1

Grade 4: 1.1.2, 1.4.1, 3.3.1, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Grade 5: 1.1.2, 1.4.1, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Grade 6: 1.4.1, 3.2.2, 3.3.1, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Corresponding CBA:

What’s the Big Idea?

Essential Questions:

3

Asset List

Multimedia

Multimedia

Video Content

Chapters that correspond with local tribal region

DVD: Native Homelands Along The Lewis and Clark Trail

Study Guide

DVD Chapter List

The DVD (35 minutes) is divided into nine chapters that range from 2 to 8 minutes each, as follows:

• Chapter 1: Introduction (2:00 minutes)

• Chapter 2: Homelands of the Mandan-Hidatsa (4:10 min)

• Chapter 3: Homeland of the Blackfeet (3:05 min)

• Chapter 4: Homeland of the Shoshone (3:05 min)

• Chapter 5: Homeland of the Salish (3:10 min)

• Chapter 6: Homelands of the Sahaptin-speaking Tribes of the Columbia River (8:10 min)

• Chapter 7: Homelands of the Upper Chinookan Tribes (3:30 min)

• Chapter 8: Homelands of the Lower Chinookan Tribes (5:00 min)

• Chapter 9: Close (0:45 min)

Ch. 3 – 5,

DVD: Contemporary Voices Along the Lewis and Clark Trail

Study Guide

DVD Chapter List

The DVD (28 minutes running time) is divided into five chapters that range from 3 to 10

minutes each, as follows:

Chapter 1: Introduction (9:10 minutes)

Chapter 2: Early Contact and its Consequences (3:00 min)

Chapter 3: Language (3:45 min)

Chapter 4: Respect (7:00 min)

Chapter 5: Continuity (5:00 min)

Handouts/Documents
Lesson Overview

Lesson 1 Overview

The Territory of Washington code of 1881 made it a crime for anyone to obstruct the passage of salmon in any waterway. When Thomas Aldwell built the lower Elwha Dam in 1912 it became clear during construction that the dam was an impediment to salmon. Aldwell failed to include a fish ladder or passage as required by law making the Elwha Dam an illegal dam. In 1913 Washington State fish commissioner, Leslie Darwin, found a loop hole in the 1881 law that allowed the Elwha Dam to function legally. In this lesson, students will read about the loop hole and the subsequent repeal of the 1881 law and its replacement by a 1914 law that allowed below dam hatcheries to be built instead of waterways. The Elwha Dam is important in that it set a precedent for dams in Washington. The students will then compare the early economic gain from the dam to the Olympic Peninsula in the form of hydropower with the loss of the salmon and write an editorial for The Port Angeles Evening News either supporting the dam or supporting the salmon.

Lesson 2 Overview

Level 1

LESSON 5 – GOOD INTENTIONS

ESSENTIAL QUESTION:
What combination of factors both natural and man-made is necessary for healthy river restoration and how does this enhance the sustainability of natural and human communities?

GUIDING QUESTION:
How did an 1881 law in Washington interfere with the support of the building of the Elwha Dam and what was the consequence for salmon? What did the building of the dam do for the economy of the Port Angeles area? LESSON OVERVIEW:
The Territory of Washington code of 1881 made it a crime for anyone to obstruct the passage of salmon in any waterway. When Thomas Aldwell built the lower Elwha Dam in 1912 it became clear during construction that the dam was an impediment to salmon. Aldwell failed to include a fish ladder or passage as required by law making the Elwha Dam an illegal dam. In 1913 Washington State fish commissioner, Leslie Darwin, found a loop hole in the 1881 law that allowed the Elwha Dam to function legally. In this lesson, students will read about the loop hole and the subsequent repeal of the 1881 law and its replacement by a 1914 law that allowed below dam hatcheries to be built instead of waterways. The Elwha Dam is important in that it set a precedent for dams in Washington. The students will then compare the early economic gain from the dam to the Olympic Peninsula in the form of hydropower with the loss of the salmon and write an editorial for The Port Angeles Evening News either supporting the dam or supporting the salmon.

TIME:
Two block class periods

MATERIALS: Pencil and paper Computer access Reflection Journal Pages (printable handout) Student pages (printable handout)
PROCEDURE:
1. Review the essential question; introduce the guiding question.
2. Hand out Reflection Journal pages then have students take a minute to write down their ideas about the questions. Ask students to share any thoughts they have written about.
3. Handout the student pages. Students will research and answer some questions about the loophole in the 1881 Washington Code that allowed the Elwha Dam to function legally. Students will research and answer questions on the economic impact of the dam to Port Angeles and the Olympic Peninsula, and then its impact on salmon.
4. Students will use the information from the reading and questions to write a letter to the editor of The Port Angeles Evening News (1916-1972) either supporting the legality of the dam and its promise of prosperity or supporting the protection of salmon.
5. Hand out the second Reflection Journal Page. Give students time for a final reflection the lesson.

ASSESSMENTS: Reflection Journal (see rubric) Editorial (see rubric)

WASHINGTON STATE STANDARDS:

READING
1. EALR 2: The student understands the meaning of what is read.
a. Component 2.2: Understand and apply knowledge of text components to comprehend text.
SOCIAL STUDIES
1. EALR 1: CIVICS The student understands and applies knowledge of government, law, politics, and the nation’s fundamental documents to make decisions about local, national, and international issues and to demonstrate thoughtful, participatory citizenship.
a. Component 1.4: Understands civic involvement.
WRITING
1. EALR 2: The student writes in a variety of forms for different audiences and purposes.
a. Component 2.2: Writes for different purposes.
2. EALR 3: The student writes clearly and effectively.
a. Component 3.1: Develops ideas and organizes writing. RESOURCES AND ENRICHMENT:
Letter writing help for struggling students: http://www.readwritethink.org/materials/letter_generator/
Elwha River Restoration Reflection Journal Page 1
Have you ever done something that got you in trouble but you got out of it because of a loophole, a way of escaping a difficulty?
Elwha River Restoration Student Pages

TASK #1: READ AND THINK
The Territory of Washington code of 1881 made it a crime for anyone to obstruct the passage of salmon on any waterway. When Thomas Aldwell built the lower Elwha Dam in 1912 it became clear during construction that the dam was an impediment to salmon. Aldwell failed to include a fish ladder or passage as required by law making the Elwha Dam an illegal dam. In 1913 Washington State fish commissioner, Leslie Darwin, found a loop hole in the 1881 law that allowed the Elwha Dam to function legally.

1. Use the provided web sites to describe the loophole, a way of escaping a difficulty, which Washington State Fish Commissioner, Leslie Darwin, evoked in order to make Thomas Aldwell’s illegal dam legal.
______________________________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________________________________________
Use these web sites to answer the questions.
http://books.google.com/books (pg.130-136)
http://www.washingtontrout.org/Rusted%20Sheild%20FINAL.pdf (pgs.7&8)
http://www.fws.gov/westwafwo/fisheries/Publications/FP208.pdf (“Fish and Fisheries” pgs8&9)

3. How did the Elwha Dam help to bring economic prosperity to Port Angeles, Washington and the Olympic Peninsula at the beginning of the 20th Century?
______________________________________________________________________________________________

4. How did the dam affect the salmon?
______________________________________________________________________________________________

Use the web sites below along with the previous web sites to answer the questions.
http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=pf_output.cfm&file_id=7590
http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=8210
http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~cses/csessite/restricted/EreadDocs/watershed_9.pdf
Elwha River Restoration Student Pages

TASK #2: TRAVEL BACK IN TIME
Use the information you have gathered from the reading you did to answer the questions about the legality of the first Elwha Dam, its economic value and its effect on salmon to write a letter to the editor, a letter expressing an opinion, to The Port Angeles Evening News.
The Port Angeles Evening News began publication in 1916 and ended publication in 1972. According to the book Port Angeles, USA by McCallum and Ross (1961) p. 134, “The early days of Port Angeles newspapering were typical of frontier journalism – rowdy, uninhibited, always embattled, always poverty stricken, but seldom dull.” Pretend the year is 1916, the lower dam had been in operation since December 12, 1913, when according to an article in The Olympic Leader ( a weekly Port Angeles newspaper) the “juice” (electric power) was turned on in Port Angeles, write your letter either in support of the dam and its promise of prosperity or in reaction to the blocking of salmon. Remember the year is 1916 and salmon are seemingly abundant but…
Think about whose point of view you want to take in writing your letter are you one of the town’s promoters – a dreamer who sees an exciting future for Port Angeles? Are you a saw mill owner or employee, a logger, a doctor, a mother, a fisherman, a Native American? Are you a grizzled old homesteader who lives on the Elwha River above the dam? Who are you and what is your opinion about the dam?
When writing a Letter to the Editor remember:
1. Your letter must be relevant. In 1916 the operation of the dam would have been important to the Port Angeles community.
2. Your letter must be logically organized. First, state the argument you are opposing, then state your own position, give your evidence and suggest solutions. Finally, restate your position in a strong concluding statement.
3. Stick to one topic.
4. Follow proper letter writing format. http://www.writing.engr.psu.edu/workbooks/letter_format.html
5. Address your letter “Dear Editor:”
6. Use your personal opinion but your personal opinion is not enough, be rational and back your opinion with facts.
7. Use persuasive language. Use clear, direct, active language. Get to the point right away.
8. Be brief, 200 -250 words – clear and concise letters are more likely to be published.
9. Get your facts right. Be able to back up your opinion with verifiable facts.
10. It’s OK in a letter to the editor to be emotional and to use emotional language, but be careful not to be too emotional. Too much anger or self- righteousness will turn your readers off. Try to be emotional but balanced.
11. Try to be entertaining. You can have facts and figures and still write an entertaining letter. Try using humor in expressing your opinion.
12. Proofread, proofread, and proofread! Then have someone else proofread! Then proofread again.
13. Have fun
RESOURCES:
Some Guidelines for Composing Letters to Editors
http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=122 from FAIR: Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting
http://kaboom.org/Advocate/PlaymakersWantedJointheNetwork/WriteaLettertotheEditor/tabid/716/Default.aspx from Playmaker
A sample letter from the American Library Association
http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/aasl/aaslproftools/toolkits/sampleletter.cfm
A Sample Letter to the Editor from a Middle School Student: http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/edumat/hreduseries/hereandnow/Part-4/9_action-activity5-sample.htm
Sample Business Letter Format
http://www.writing.engr.psu.edu/workbooks/letter_format.html
Check with your teacher for deadlines and a grading rubric for your letter.
Elwha River Restoration Reflection Journal 2
Now it’s time to return to the present. Today, knowing what we know about the loss of salmon in the Elwha River would you have written the same letter? Why or why not?
How much influence do you think Letters to the Editor have on local government?
Grading Rubric for a Letter to the Editor
Outstanding response (4)
The beginning of the letter grabs the reader with a strong and clear identification of the issue and statement of personal opinion. It makes three or more excellent points of evidence with good support. The letter summarizes the issue and personal opinion in a strong concluding statement. Proper letter format is used. Letter is 200-250 words. Sentences and paragraphs are complete and varied. Words are well-chosen and clear. The letter is logical and sticks to the topic. The letter contains no spelling, grammatical or usage errors.
Above-average response (3)
The beginning of the letter clearly identifies the issue and states an opinion. The letter makes two excellent points of evidence with good support. The letter summarizes the issue and personal opinion in a concluding statement. Proper letter format is used. Letter is 200 -250 words. Sentences and paragraphs are complete. Word choice is good. The Letter is logical and sticks to the topic. The letter contains one spelling, grammatical or usage error.
Average response (2)
The issue and personal opinion are not clearly stated at the beginning of the letter. The letter only makes one point of evidence with good support or it makes more than one point of evidence without good support. The concluding statement is weak and doesn’t clearly restate the issue and personal opinion. Letter format is incorrect. Letter is more than 250 or less than 200 words. Sentences and paragraphs may be incomplete or wordy. The letter uses good words but is inconsistent in sticking to the topic. The letter contains spelling, grammatical or usage errors.
Below-average response (1)
The issue and personal opinion are not easily understood. The letter’s evidence and support are weak. The concluding statement is unclear and fails to restate either the issue or a personal opinion. Letter format is incorrect. Letter is less than 200 words. Sentences are incomplete or wordy and unclear. Word usage is weak and the letter is illogical and inconsistent. There are many spelling, grammatical and usage errors.
Failure to respond to the assigned prompt (0)
No effort was made to identify relevant requirements. Letter was either left unfinished or not attempted at all.
Reflection Journal Rubric
Outstanding response (4)
An outstanding reflection journal response is an original, thought-provoking response to the questions raised in the prompt. It contains specific examples from both the student’s experiences as well as the classroom material whenever possible. It asks original, provocative, relevant questions. It is also virtually free of grammatical errors.
Above-average response (3)
An above-average journal thoroughly addresses the questions raised in the prompt. It
contains specific examples from both personal experiences as well as the classroom
material whenever possible. It asks provocative, relevant questions. It may contain some minor grammatical errors.
Average response (2)
An average journal competently addresses the issue raised in the prompt. It contains
some examples from both personal experiences as well as the classroom material
whenever possible. It asks relevant questions. Grammatical errors may be present, but they will not impede the reader from understanding the context of the sentences
Below-average response (1)
A below-average journal does not competently address the issue raised in the prompt. It
contains few examples from personal experiences or the classroom
material. It asks easy questions. Grammatical errors are so rampant that they impede the reader from understanding the context of the sentences.
Failure to respond to the assigned prompt (0)
A failing journal does not address the issue raised in the prompt at a middle school level. It contains very few examples of personal experiences as well as classroom
material, or the student fails to respond at all. Grammatical errors are so rampant that they impede the reader from understanding the context of the sentences.

Level 2

Lesson Plan 6A: A LONG AND DIFFICULT PROCESS

ESSENTIAL QUESTION:
What combination of factors both natural and man-made is necessary for healthy river restoration and how does this enhance the sustainability of natural and human communities?

GUIDING QUESTION:
It would be nice if a few sticks of dynamite could quickly remove a dam, but there are many big issues involved in dam removal, what are those issues and how do they relate to the Elwha River dam removal project?

OVERVIEW:
In this lesson, students working in four groups will use Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide, a web document published by American Rivers and Trout Unlimited, to research one of four issues involved in dam removal as it relates to the Elwha River. The students will synthesize their research for presentation to the class.

TIME:
Two – three block class periods.

MATERIALS: Computer/ internet access Pencil and paper Handouts

PROCEDURE:
1. Review the Essential Question, introduce the Guiding Question.
2. Give the students a few minutes to respond to the Reflection Journal question then take a few minutes to discuss their responses. (Reflection Journal 1 handout)
3. Tell the students they will be using an online document titled Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide, to examine the issue of dam removal.
4. Divide the class into four teams. Each team will look at one of the four issues: ecologic, economic, societal, and technical/mechanical that Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide identifies as important.
5. Give the teams the student page so they know exactly what they are expected to do then send the teams to computers to answer some questions about the introduction to the guide all teams will answer these questions as background before adventuring into their issue. ( Student page & Handout 1)
6. After teams have completed the first set of questions, give them the handout that relates to their section of the Guide and have them begin their study. (Handouts 2).
7. When the teams have finished outlining their issue, tell them that they will relate the information they have gathered to the issue of the Elwha River Dam removals which they will expertly report on to the class. (Handouts 3)
8. Students will make an oral presentation on their issue. ( Oral Presentation Rubric)
9. Have students complete the final Reflection Journal page. (Reflection Journal 2)

ASSESSMENTS: Reflection pages (see rubric) Completed handouts Final presentation (see rubric)

WASHINGTON STATE STANDARDS:
READING:
1. EALR 1: The student understands and uses different skills and strategies to read.
a. Component 1.3: Build vocabulary through wide reading.
2. EALR 2: The student understands the meaning of what is read.
a. Component 2.2: Understand and apply knowledge of text components to comprehend text.
3. EALR 3: The student reads different materials for a variety of purposes.
a. Component 3.1: Read to learn new information.
b. Component 3.2: Read to perform a task
SOCIAL STUDIES
1. EALR 3: GEOGRAPHY The student uses a spatial perspective to make reasoned decisions by applying the concepts of location, region, and movement and demonstrating knowledge of how geographic features and human cultures impact environments.
a. Component 3.2: Understands human interaction with the environment
2. EALR 5: SOCIAL STUDIES SKILLS The student understands and applies reasoning skills to conduct research, deliberate, form, and evaluate positions through the processes of reading, writing, and communicating.
a. Component 5.2: Uses inquiry-based research
b. Component 5.4: Creates a product that uses social studies content to support a thesis and presents the product in an appropriate manner to a meaningful audience.
WRITING:
1. EALR 1: The student understands and uses a writing process.
a. Component 1.6: Adjusts writing process as necessary.
2. EALR 2: The student writes in a variety of forms for different audiences and purposes.
a. Component 2.2: Writes for different purposes.
3. EALR 3: The student writes clearly and effectively.
a. Component 3.1: Develops ideas and organizes writing.
Elwha River Restoration Reflection Journal Page 1
What do you think goes into the process of dam removal?
Elwha River Restoration

Student Page
PART ONE
Your task:
There are many issues that must be considered before a dam is removed. You and your team will be using a web document published by American Rivers and Trout Unlimited titled Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide as your text in order to explore a specific issue related to dam removal, then you will relate your findings to the removal of the Elwha Dams. Ultimately, you will make an oral presentation on your findings.
1. In order to build a little background, you and your team will read and answer some questions from the introduction to the text. (Handout 1)
2. Next you will read and summarize the section of the text that your group is exploring. (Handout 2) Have different members of your group take on different jobs so you can complete this is a reasonable amount of time. While you are reading make note of new vocabulary words . Chances are if you don’t know a word then others don’t know it either, write down and define those words for use in your final presentation. (Handout 3).

PART TWO
Your next task:
1. Use the section headings of Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide along with your pros, cons, summaries and vocabulary to explore reasons the decision was made to remove the Elwha Dams. Look at the” bottom line” questions to guide your search for answers. ( Handouts 4) You and your team may not be able to answer every question but don’t use this as an excuse for not trying there is a lot of information on the Elwha Dam removal project. Try these web sites:
http://www.nps.gov/olym/naturescience/upload/All_Chapters.pdf – This is a link to the Final Supplement to the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Elwha, it should contain everything you need, however, it’s over 300 pages long. Use your skimming skills to look for key words or sections that might contain useful information.
http://www.americanrivers.org/site/PageServer?pagename=AMR_elwharestoration
http://www.americanrivers.org/site/PageServer?pagename=AMR_Elwha
http://www.elwhainfo.org/resource-management
http://www.drizzle.com/~rdpayne/opa-news-v4n1.html#3
http://www.nps.gov/olym/naturescience/upload/Economic%20analysis.pdf iii, Executive Summary
http://www.drizzle.com/~rdpayne/opa-news-v4n1.html#3
http://www.uvm.edu/~shali/elwha.pdf pgs 12 & 13
http://media.popularmechanics.com/documents/PMX0106SolarHouse_1stprfsb.pdf

If there isn’t enough information in these links, type “Elwha Dam removal” into your browser. This is an important issue and there is a wealth of information on the web.
2. Use the information you have gathered in your research on the Elwha Dams to put together an oral presentation to your class on your particular issue. As experts on the topic, your presentation will provide an important piece to the puzzle of removing the Elwha Dams. Remember in your presentation you need to help your audience fully understand the issue. Ask your teacher for a grading rubric and a due date.

Have fun!

Elwha River Restoration A Long and Difficult Process Handout 1
Read the Introduction (pgs. 1-6) of Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide and answer the questions. Access the Guide at http://www.americanrivers.org/site/DocServer/Exploring_Dam_Removal-A_Decision-Making_Guide.pdf?docID=3641

1. What are some of the benefits of dams?

2. What are some of the negative affects of dams?

3. What are some of the benefits of dam removal?

4. Are the outcomes of dam removal certain? Why or why not?

5. What factors are involved in making a final decision?

Elwha River Restoration A Long and Difficult Process Ecological Issues Handout 2
Read “Part III. Ecological Issues” of Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide and identify the pros and cons of each ecological issue. If there are no identified pros and cons, write a short summary of the section. Access the guide at: http://www.americanrivers.org/site/DocServer/Exploring_Dam_Removal-A_Decision-Making_Guide.pdf?docID=3641

A. Upstream Flow and Habitat
B. Downstream Flow and Habitat
C. Fish and Wildlife
D. Passage and Movement of Fish and Other Species
E. Sediment Movement
F. Water Quality
G. Riparian Areas
H. Wetland Areas
I. Location of the Dam within the Watershed

Elwha River Restoration A Long and Difficult Process Economic Issues Handout 2
Read “Part IV. Economic Issues” of Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide and identify the pros and cons of each ecological issue. If there are no identified pros and cons, write a short summary of the section. Access the guide at: http://www.americanrivers.org/site/DocServer/Exploring_Dam_Removal-A_Decision-Making_Guide.pdf?docID=3641

A. Dam Owner’s Costs and Benefits
B. Societal Costs and Benefits
C. Recreational Costs and Benefits
D. Environmental Costs and Benefits
E. Property Values
F. Distribution of Costs and Benefits
G. Availability of Funding for Dam Repair or Removal

Elwha River Restoration A Long and Difficult Process Societal Issues Handout 2
Read “Part V. Societal Issues” of Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide and identify the pros and cons of each ecological issue. If there are no identified pros and cons, write a short summary of the section. Access the guide at: http://www.americanrivers.org/site/DocServer/Exploring_Dam_Removal-A_Decision-Making_Guide.pdf?docID=3641

A. Community Understanding of the Dam, the River, and Dam Removal
B. Service(s) Provided by the Dam
C. Who Benefits From and Who Bears the Cost of the Dam
D. Community Sentiments Toward the Dam and the River
E. Historical Role of the Dam

Elwha River Restoration A Long and Difficult Process Technical/Engineering Issues Handout 2
Read “Part VI. Technical/Engineering Issues” of Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide and identify the pros and cons of each ecological issue. If there are no identified pros and cons, write a short summary of the section. Access the guide at: http://www.americanrivers.org/site/DocServer/Exploring_Dam_Removal-A_Decision-Making_Guide.pdf?docID=3641

A. Feasibility of Repairing and Maintaining the Dam

A1. Safety Repairs or Upgrades
A2. Repairs or Upgrades to Continue Efficiently Providing the Dam’s Intended Uses
A3. Mitigation of the Dam’s Environmental Impacts

B. Feasibility and Design of Dam Removal

B1. Obtaining Dam Removal Permits
B2. Protecting Against Environmental Impacts
B3. Managing Sediment
B4. Removing Structures
B5. Protecting Infrastructure
B6. Restoring the Channel
B7. Restoring Recovered Land

Elwha River Restoration A Long and Difficult Process Vocabulary Handout 3
There should be some new vocabulary in the sections you are reading. Chances are that if you don’t know or understand a word neither does your audience. Find at least six words that you don’t know and define them for the illumination of your audience when you present what you have learned. There are probably more then six words you will need to define but you must at least show six.
1. Word
a. Definition
2. Word
a. Definition
3. Word
a. Definition
4. Word
a. Definition
5. Word
a. Definition
6. Word
a. Definition
Add more words (you know there are some) and definitions in the extra space below.
Elwha River Restoration A Long and Difficult Process Ecological Issues Handout 4
Using all the information you’ve gathered along with Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide and the suggested web sites, answer the” bottom line” questions as regards the Elwha River Dams.
A. Upstream Flow and Habitat: Will the restored river and riparian habitat upstream outweigh the loss of impounded habitat?
B. Downstream Flow and Habitat: Is dam removal necessary to restore natural flows to the
river? Do the benefits of restored flows outweigh the impacts on species that prefer unnatural flows?
C. Fish and Wildlife: Is the net impact of dam removal on fish and wildlife populations positive or negative?
D. Passage and Movement of Fish and Other Species: Will dam removal improve safe passage of migrating fish and movement of resident fish and wildlife? Is dam removal necessary to accomplish this? Can dam removal be done without enabling the spread of undesirable species?
E. Sediment Movement: What is the current net impact of the accumulated sediment on the
impoundment and downstream habitats? How will sediments released during dam removal impact the riparian and riverine habitats in the short and long term?
F. Water Quality: Will dam removal have a net benefit on water quality, taking into account
both short-term and long-term impacts and benefits?
G. Riparian Areas: Will there be a net gain in the amount and quality of riparian habitat as
a result of dam removal?
H. Wetland Areas: How will the wetlands gained by dam removal compare in amount, type,
and habitat value to the wetlands lost by dam removal?
I. Location of the Dam within the Watershed: Will dam removal significantly enhance the river’s ecological values, given the location of the dam relative to other dams in the watershed?
Do you think the Elwha Dams should be removed? Justify your answer with evidence from your research.
1 Questions from Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide. American Rivers and Trout Unlimited, 2002,.http://www.americanrivers.org/site/DocServer/Exploring_Dam_Removal-A_Decision-Making_Guide.pdf?docID=3641Accessed March 2009.

Elwha River Restoration A Long and Difficult Process Economic Issues Handout 4
Using all the information you’ve gathered along with Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide and the suggested web sites, answer the “bottom line” questions as regards the Elwha River Dams.
A. Dam Owner’s Costs and Benefits: Are the long-term costs of operating and maintaining
the dam less or more than the costs of removing the dam? Do any benefits of the dam need to be replaced, and if so, by whom?
B. Societal Costs and Benefits: Are others in the community responsible for any additional
costs and benefits of maintaining or removing the dam?
C. Recreational Costs and Benefits: Will dam removal positively or negatively influence
community revenues from recreation?
C. Environmental Costs and Benefits: Do the net environmental costs (or benefits) of keeping the dam outweigh the net environmental costs (or benefits) of removing the dam?
D. Property Values: Will dam removal positively or negatively affect property values adjacent to the stream? Will these effects, if any, be short or long term?
E. Distribution of Costs and Benefits: Who benefits the most from retaining/removing the
dam? Who bears the costs for retaining/removing the dam?
F. Availability of Funding for Dam Repair or Removal: What funds are available to pay for
dam maintenance/repair or removal?
Do you think the Elwha Dams should be removed? Justify your answer with evidence from your research.
1 Questions from Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide. American Rivers and Trout Unlimited, 2002,.http://www.americanrivers.org/site/DocServer/Exploring_Dam_Removal-A_Decision-Making_Guide.pdf?docID=3641 Accessed March 2009.
Elwha River Restoration A Long and Difficult Process Societal Issues – Handout 4
Using all the information you’ve gathered along with Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide and the suggested web sites, answer the” bottom line” questions as regards the Elwha River Dams.
A. Community Understanding of the Dam, the River, and Dam Removal: Do the decision makers and other concerned parties have sufficient information to make an informed decision about dam removal? Or dam retention?
B. Service(s) Provided by the Dam: Does the dam provide any services? Are these services as valuable as the services provided by a free-flowing river? If yes, can these services be provided through alternative means?
C. Who Benefits From and Who Bears the Costs of the Dam: Who benefits from and who bears the costs of the dam? Who will benefit from and who will bear the cost of a restored river?
D. Community Sentiments Toward the Dam and River: How do community members feel
about the dam? About the river? About dam removal?
E. Historical Role of the Dam: Does the dam have true historical value, and are there ways to commemorate the historical value without keeping the dam?
Do you think the Elwha Dams should be removed? Justify your answer with evidence from your research.
1 Questions from Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide. American Rivers and Trout Unlimited, 2002.
http://www.americanrivers.org/site/DocServer/Exploring_Dam_Removal-A_Decision-Making_Guide.pdf?docID=3641Accessed March 2009.
Elwha River Restoration A Long and Difficult Process Technical/Engineering Issues – Handout 4
Using all the information you’ve gathered along with Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide and the suggested web sites, answer the” bottom line” questions as regards the Elwha River Dams.
A1. Safety Repairs or Upgrades: If the dam is unsafe, will dam removal cost less than repairs and ongoing maintenance? Are repairs to the dam prohibitively expensive?
A2. Repairs or Upgrades to Continue Efficiently Providing the Dam’s Intended Uses: If expensive upgrades are needed to maintain the dam’s services, is it more cost effective to remove the dam and find alternatives to replace those services?
A3. Mitigation of the Dam’s Environmental Impacts: If environmental mitigation measures are needed, is it more cost effective to keep the dam and mitigate for its environmental impacts or remove the dam?
B1. Obtaining Dam Removal Permits: Will permitting requirements affect the design, cost or feasibility of the removal? Are there permitting requirements for dam repair, reconstruction, or related to any of the services provided by the dam that will affect the feasibility or cost of keeping the dam?
B2. Protecting Against Environmental Impacts: What steps must be taken to eliminate or minimize the environmental impacts of the dam removal?
B3. Managing Sediment: Is there a feasible method of managing the sediment behind the dam?
B4. Removing Structures: What is the most cost effective and environmentally sound dam
removal method?
1 Questions from Exploring Dam Removal: A Decision Making Guide. American Rivers and Trout Unlimited, 2002.
Accessed March 2009.
B5. Protecting Infrastructure: Are there structures that will have to be stabilized, retrofitted, or relocated if the dam is removed?
B6. Restoring the Channel: Does the new river channel need to be actively designed or can
the river naturally find its own channel?
B7. Restoring Recovered Land: Will the recovered land need to be actively revegetated?
Do you think the Elwha Dams should be removed? Justify your answer with evidence from your research.
Elwha River Restoration Reflection Journal Page 2
After all you’ve read and heard, do you think some dams and the Elwha Dams in particular should be removed?
Elwha River Dam Removal Oral Presentation Rubric
CATEGORY 4 3 2 1
Content
Shows a full understanding of the topic.
Shows a good understanding of the topic.
Shows a good understanding of parts of the topic.
Does not seem to understand the topic very well.
Stays on Topic
Stays on topic all (100%) of the time.
Stays on topic most (99-90%) of the time.
Stays on topic some (89%-75%) of the time.
It was hard to tell what the topic was.
Comprehension
Students are able to accurately answer almost all questions posed by classmates about the topic. Students have fully answered the questions on the handout.
Students are able to accurately answer most questions posed by classmates about the topic. Students have mostly answered the questions on the handout.
Students are i able to accurately answer a few questions posed by classmates about the topic. Students have answered a few questions on the handout.
Students are unable to accurately answer questions posed by classmates about the topic. Students have answered less than three questions on the handout.
Preparedness
Students are completely prepared and have obviously rehearsed.
Students seem pretty prepared but might have needed a couple more rehearsals.
Students are somewhat prepared, but it is clear that rehearsal was lacking.
Students do not seem at all prepared to present.
Vocabulary
Uses vocabulary appropriate for the audience. Extends audience vocabulary by defining words that might be new to most of the audience.
Uses vocabulary appropriate for the audience. Includes 1-2 words that might be new to most of the audience, but does not define them.
Uses vocabulary appropriate for the audience. Does not include any vocabulary that might be new to the audience.
Uses several (5 or more) words or phrases that are not understood by the audience.
Speaks Clearly
Speaks clearly and distinctly all (100-95%) the time, and mispronounces no words.
Speaks clearly and distinctly all (100-95%) the time, but mispronounces one word.
Speaks clearly and distinctly most ( 94-85%) of the time. Mispronounces no more than one word.
Often mumbles or can not be understood OR mispronounces more than one word.
Collaboration with Peers
Almost always listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Tries to keep people working well together.
Usually listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Does not cause “waves” in the group.
Often listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group but sometimes is not a good team member.
Rarely listens to, shares with, and supports the efforts of others in the group. Often is not a good team member.
Reflection Journal Rubric
Outstanding response (4)
An outstanding reflection journal response is an original, thought-provoking response to the questions raised in the prompt. It contains specific examples from both the student’s experiences as well as the classroom material whenever possible. It asks original, provocative, relevant questions. It is also virtually free of grammatical errors.
Above-average response (3)
An above-average journal thoroughly addresses the questions raised in the prompt. It
contains specific examples from both personal experiences as well as the classroom
material whenever possible. It asks provocative, relevant questions. It may contain some minor grammatical errors.
Average response (2)
An average journal competently addresses the issue raised in the prompt. It contains
some examples from both personal experiences as well as the classroom material
whenever possible. It asks relevant questions. Grammatical errors may be present, but they will not impede the reader from understanding the context of the sentences
Below-average response (1)
A below-average journal does not competently address the issue raised in the prompt. It
contains few examples from personal experiences or the classroom
material. It asks easy questions. Grammatical errors are so rampant that they impede the reader from understanding the context of the sentences.
Failure to respond to the assigned prompt (0)
A failing journal does not address the issue raised in the prompt at a middle school level. It contains very few examples of personal experiences as well as classroom
material, or the student fails to respond at all. Grammatical errors are so rampant that they impede the reader from understanding the context of the sentences.

Level 3

LESSON 7 – SHOULD THE DAMS ON THE ELWHA BE REMOVED? A CLASSROOM DEBATE

ESSENTIAL QUESTION:
What combination of factors both natural and man-made is necessary for healthy river restoration and how does this enhance the sustainability of natural and human communities?

GUIDING QUESTION:
Dams have been useful to human populations in providing water and energy for development of wilderness areas. Should dams that have outlived their use be removed in order to enhance the sustainability of natural and human communities? LESSON OVERVIEW:
For this lesson, we direct you to The American Field Guide at: http://www.pbs.org/americanfieldguide/teachers/salmon/salmon_unit.html
They have built a fantastic lesson plan for the debate over the removal of the dams on the Elwha River. We brainstormed some answers for the Environmental Decision Making Model for this lesson which we’ve included here.

Download Chart here: Lesson-Plan-7-Chart-for-American-Field-Guide_Elwha.pdf