WA – Being Citizens in WA: Boldt Decision

Lesson Plans – Elementary School

3 | Being Citizens in Washington

Salmon Recovery and The Boldt Decision

Washington State History Curriculum
OSPI Tribal Sovereignty Curriculum for the Social Studies

Historical Era

Time Immemorial to Treaties | 1856 – 20th Century  | 21st Century

Social Studies GLEs:

Grade 3: 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 3.1.2, 3.2.1

Grade 4: 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.4.1, 3.1.2, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Grade 5: 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.4.1, 3.1.2, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Grade 6: 1.4.1, 3.1.2, 3.2.1, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Corresponding CBA:

Whose Rules?

Essential Questions:

1,3,4,5


Asset List

Multimedia

Multimedia

Video Content

DVD: Native Homelands Along The Lewis and Clark Trail

Study Guide

DVD Chapter List

The DVD (35 minutes) is divided into nine chapters that range from 2 to 8 minutes each, as follows:

• Chapter 1: Introduction (2:00 minutes)

• Chapter 2: Homelands of the Mandan-Hidatsa (4:10 min)

• Chapter 3: Homeland of the Blackfeet (3:05 min)

• Chapter 4: Homeland of the Shoshone (3:05 min)

• Chapter 5: Homeland of the Salish (3:10 min)

• Chapter 6: Homelands of the Sahaptin-speaking Tribes of the Columbia River (8:10 min)

• Chapter 7: Homelands of the Upper Chinookan Tribes (3:30 min)

• Chapter 8: Homelands of the Lower Chinookan Tribes (5:00 min)

• Chapter 9: Close (0:45 min)

Handouts/Documents
Student Examples/projects
Lesson Overview

LESSONS/UNIT OVERVIEW:

In the Pacific Northwest, Native people lived, worked and enjoyed life for thousands of years before non-Indians came to the region. Indeed, Indians have respected and cared for the natural resources of the Pacific Northwest since the great Ice Age. Through the centuries, they shaped their existence around salmon and other natural resources provided by the Creator to sustain them. The meat kept them healthy, as did the spiritual and cultural strength they derived from these resources. Tribal customs and ceremonies have always reflected harmony with Nature, kinship with its elements, and deeply felt gratitude for the gifts provided by Mother Earth. Thus, for thousands of years, the tribes have practiced conservation. They have provided for the escapement of fish to the spawning grounds prior to commencing the harvest. Long before non-Indians ever set foot on this land, tribes restocked streams affected by drought and other natural causes. Indian people have always known that all things are connected—the river with the land, the fish with the fishers, and so on. In 1854, Chief Sealth (Seattle) expressed belief in these things as recorded in the Seattle Sunday Star: “Every part of this country is sacred to my people. Every hillside, every valley, every plain and grove has been hallowed by some fond memory or some sad experience of my tribe…the very dust under your feet responds more lovingly to our footsteps than to yours, because it is the ashes of our ancestors, and our bare feet are conscious of the sympathetic touch, for the soil is rich with the life of our kindred.

Part 1: Boldt Decision

When Washington Indian nations signed treaties with the federal government, they gave up a lot of land, but they kept the right to hunt, fish, and gather in all their “usual and accustomed places” –many of which were not on the reservations. At the time the treaties were signed, no one thought this would be a problem. But the population of settlers grew larger than anyone dreamed, and so did the number of white people who fished for a living. In fact, fishing became a major industry. Soon Indians were prevented from fishing in the places where they had fished for thousands of years. State agents arrested Indians caught fishing off their reservations, and took away their boats and fishing nets. In the 1960’s Indian fishers began to protest this violation of their treaty rights. Many people (including some famous movie stars) came to support them, and news of these protests brought the issues to the attention of the public. Finally, the US government acted to protect Indian rights by suing the state of Washington to allow Indians to fish.
In 1974, George Boldt, a federal judge, ruled that the Indians were right: the treaties said they had the right to fish “in common with” everyone else. Judge Boldt looked at an 1828 dictionary to see what the phrase “in common with” meant to the people who signed the treaties, and concluded that it meant Indians should have half of the salmon. He also ruled that Indian tribes should be partners with the state in managing and protecting salmon.
The Boldt Decision was a big victory for Indians—and in the long run, a big victory for salmon, too.
Level 1

LEVEL 1: Elementary Washington State History: Being Citizens in Washington: Salmon Recovery and The Boldt Decision—UPDATED January 2012

Social Studies GLEs:

GLEs Addressed—1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.3.1, 1.4.1, 2.2.2, 22.3.1, 4.1.2, 4.2.3, 4.3.2, 4.4.1

Grade 3: 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 3.1.2, 3.2.1

Grade 4: 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.4.1, 3.1.2, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Grade 5: 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.4.1, 3.1.2, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Grade 6: 1.4.1, 3.1.2, 3.2.1, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Corresponding CBA: Whose Rules?
Common Core Standards:
Key Ideas and Details:
1. Refer to details and examples in the text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. 2. Determine the main idea of the text and explain how it is supported iby key details; summarize the text
Craft and Structure:
4. Determine the meaning of domain specific words and phrases

LEVEL 1 LESSON: Aprox. 2 forty minute class periods

Step 1.     Teacher Preparation

  1. Teacher becomes acquainted with salmon recovery sites and efforts of federal, state, tribal, and local agencies.
  2. Teacher becomes acquainted with the policies and laws that promote salmon recovery through joint state/federal – tribal efforts, such as:

i.    The Centennial Accord

ii.    The Salmon Recovery Act

iii.    The Salmon Recovery Fund

iv.    The Columbia Basin Fish Accords

v.    The Boldt Decision of 1974

vi.    (See the following websites:  http://goia.wa.gov , http://critfc.org , http://nwifc.org http://salmondefense.org )

  1. (Optional extension: Research Boldt II—the second phase of the 1974 decision that requires state agencies to repair or replace all culverts to allow for salmon migration and spawning)
  2. Make photocopies of the Boldt Level 1 Introduction (excerpts from Chapter 6 of “The State We’re In: Washington: Your guide to state, tribal and local government” (League of Women Voters 2010))
  3. Drawing paper, crayons, markers, construction paper, and scissors

Step 2.     Intro: Ask students three things:

  1. How they play “Keep Away.”
  2. What it feels like to be in the middle (the one who is trying to retrieve the object)
  3. What it feels like to be in the middle when you are playing with something was taken from you
  4. What usually happens?
  5. What is the difference?

Step 3.     Teaching Point:  Today you will learn about a different kind of keep away game—this one was between governments. You are learning about how the two governments solved their problem, because that solution affects every single person in this room.

Step 4.     Show the chapter in “Native Homelands Along The Lewis and Clark Trail” video series that best corresponds to where your school is located and do the activities associated with it AND Chapters 8 and 9, which describe in detail the importance of salmon to traditional lifeways and survival of Indian people.

Step 5.     HOMEWORK: Make a list of all the things that are most important to you and your family.

Step 6.     Connect the content of the video to the “Keep Away” opening discussion and the homework.  Imagine if someone was playing keep away with your life (if that is too hard to conceptualize, liken it to all their possessions, where they live, etc.)

Step 7.     Students will read Part One an excerpt from “The State We’re In: Washington—Your Guide to State, Tribal, and Local Government” and understand how treaties affected tribal fishing rights and Judge George Boldt’s historic interpretation of treaty language.  Use paired reading, GLAD strategies or other reading strategies in approaching this excerpt.

Step 8.     Students will complete a graphic organizer to assist in the comprehension of the difficult concepts.

Step 9.     After checking for understanding, students may pair up to describe the conflict between Washington State and the tribes as a game of “Keep Away.” Draw it as a graphic organizer (label the drawings), use construction paper, scissors, and other materials as needed.  Students will present and explain it.

Step 10. Ask, “So how did the keep away game end?”

Step 11. Complete the following simile and provide at least two pieces of evidence from the article to support your explanation “The conflict between Indian tribes and Washington State was like a keep away game, because…”

Step 12. Wrap-up: As we continue to study being citizens in Washington State, think about how tribes are affected by the decisions we all make as citizens.

Step 13. (If moving on to Level 2, ask the teaser, “How do you think governments are using the Boldt Decision today?”

Level 2

LEVEL 2: Elementary Washington State History: Being Citizens in Washington: Salmon Recovery and The Boldt Decision—UPDATED January 2012

GLEs Addressed—1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.3.1, 1.4.1, 2.2.2, 22.3.1, 4.1.2, 4.2.3, 4.3.2, 4.4.1

Grade 3: 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 3.1.2, 3.2.1

Grade 4: 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.4.1, 3.1.2, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Grade 5: 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.4.1, 3.1.2, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Grade 6: 1.4.1, 3.1.2, 3.2.1, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Corresponding CBA: Whose Rules?

Common Core Standards:

Key Ideas and Details:

3.   Refer to details and examples in the text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
4.   Determine the main idea of the text and explain how it is supported iby key details; summarize the text

Craft and Structure:

5.   Determine the meaning of domain specific words and phrases

LEVEL 2 LESSON: Approx. 2 forty minute classes

Level 2 builds on Level 1 by examining the Boldt Decision Today and the “Centennial Accord.”  Students will again use graphic organizers to help with comprehension. This will be in preparation for completing the “Whose Rules?” CBA.

Step 1.     Teacher Prep:

  1. Photocopy classroom sets of both Parts 2 and 3 of the Boldt Intro.
  2. Choose and copy the graphic organizers you will use in scaffolding the reading comprehension.
  3. Load some of the sites below and prepare to project and explain them to the class.
  4. “T” Charts for each student (students can create them in reading journals or notebook paper
  5. Optional: Copies of selected activities from the Salmon Homecoming Activity Book (http://salmonhomecoming.org/education) or Wy-Kan-Ush-Pum (Salmon People) Activity Book from the Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission (http://www.critfc.org)

Step 2.     Introduction: Have you ever heard that saying, “Easier said than done?” Give an example from the classroom or your life.  Ask the students to give examples as well.  Well, this was especially the case with the state and tribal governments after the Boldt Decision was made.

Step 3.     Teaching Point: Yesterday you learned about a very important court decision called the Boldt Decision.  Today you will learn how perseverance and commitment aid in carrying out difficult decisions.

Step 4.     Using the same reading strategies as described in Level 1, students will read and understand the two articles “The Boldt Decision Today” and “The Centennial Accord.”

Step 5.     After reading Part Two: “The Boldt Decision Today”, ask students to imagine that they are hired mediators who will help the state and tribes come up with a solution to how to improve relationships. Student mediation teams can brainstorm solutions based on evidence and prior knowledge.

Step 6.     Read Part Three: “The Centennial Accord” to find out how state and tribal governments hope to build their relationship.

Step 7.     Reveal some websites that demonstrate government-to-government relationships in working toward salmon recovery.

Step 8.     Show them the Governor’s Office of Indian Affairs site.

Step 9.     HOMEWORK: Look for news articles that you think relate to the Boldt Decision.

Step 10. Wrap-Up:  Today we saw how perseverance of governments can help to develop relationships and partnerships toward a common goal.  Tomorrow, we will begin preparation for a Socratic Seminar/PowerPoint Presentation/Panel Discussion (whatever form your CBA will take) to demonstrate our understanding of the problem between the state and tribal governments, the solution, and how it affects us today.

 

Level 3

LEVEL 3: Elementary Washington State History: Being Citizens in Washington: Salmon Recovery and The Boldt Decision—UPDATED January 2012

GLEs Addressed—1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.3.1, 1.4.1, 2.2.2, 22.3.1, 4.1.2, 4.2.3, 4.3.2, 4.4.1

Grade 3: 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 3.1.2, 3.2.1

Grade 4: 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.2.1, 1.2.2, 1.4.1, 3.1.2, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Grade 5: 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 1.4.1, 3.1.2, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Grade 6: 1.4.1, 3.1.2, 3.2.1, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Corresponding CBA: Whose Rules?

Common Core Standards:

Key Ideas and Details:

  1. 1.   Refer to details and examples in the text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.
  2. 2.   Determine the main idea of the text and explain how it is supported iby key details; summarize the text

Craft and Structure:

4.Determine the meaning of domain specific words and phrases

Production and Distribution of Writing:

  1. 1.   Write opinion pieces on topics and texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

  1. 7.   Conduct short research projects that use several sources to build knowledge through investigation of different aspects of a topic.
  2. 8.   Recall relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes and categorize information, and provide a list of resources
  3. 9.   Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research

Level 3: (Approx 4, 40 minute classes)

Students will build on Levels 1 and 2 by seeing the Boldt Decision in action.  They will explore at least one organization working toward salmon recovery and evaluate by completing the Whose Rules? CBA.

Step 1.     Teacher Prep:

  1. Determine what form your CBA will take and follow OSPI’s support materials to prepare.
  2. Photocopy the OSPI graphic organizer for “Whose Rules?”
  3. Make copies of the problem/solution paragraph
  4. Make copies of “The Salmon Activity Book”, “Salmon Homecoming Activity Book”, and “Wy-Kan-Ush-Pum (Salmon People) Activity Book” and choose which activities you would like your students to do.  All are about the importance of salmon and how to protect their habitats.  This is a great science tie-in.

Step 2.     Teaching Point:  Yesterday how perseverance and commitment can build relationships even when situations are difficult.  Today, you will see how we all benefit from those partnerships.

Step 3.     Students will identify a state, federal, or tribal website and how partnerships work toward salmon recovery.

Step 4.

  1. Columbia Basin Fish Accords (http://www.salmonrecovery.gov)
  2. Salmon and Steelhead Habitat Inventory and Assessment Program (http://wdfw.wa.gov/hab/sshiap/)
  3. Governor’s Salmon Recovery Office (http://www.governor.wa.gov/gsro/)
  4. Northwest Indian Fish Commission (http://www.nwifc.org)
  5. Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission (http://www.critfc.org)
  6. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Salmon Recovery (http://www.wdfw.wa.gov/recovery.htm)
  7. Upper Columbia Salmon Recovery Board (http://www.ucsrb.com/default.asp)

Step 5.     Assign trios to explore two websites: one tribal site and one non-tribal site. Student trios will report to the class what the goals of the organization are and what they are doing to promote salmon recovery.

  1. Usually just the “About Us” page is enough to get all the information they need.  More advanced readers can “drill down” further to get more details.
  2. Use note-taking strategies or graphic organizers like a “T” chart to record information.  Example:

Tribal

Non-Tribal

Step 6.     Student trios share with the class who will add to their “T” charts.

Step 7.     Among the agreements is educating everyone about the importance of salmon.  Two ways tribes have done so are through

  1. Salmon Homecoming Kids’ Activity Book (http://www.salmonhomecoming.org/education/) and
  2. the Wy-Kan-Ush-Pum (Salmon People) Activity Book from the Columbia River Intertribal Fish Commission (http://www.critfc.org)   One way non-Indian organizations have educated the public is through the Bonneville Power Administration’s “Salmon Activity Book.”  All pubulications are in pdf form on this site.

Step 8.     Individually, have students write a problem/solution paragraph.

Step 9.     Discuss with students all the different ways the Boldt Decision affects them (clean rivers and water, more abundant salmon runs, Native fishing rights restored, etc.)

Step 1.     Follow state guidelines for completing the Whose Rules? CBA :

In a cohesive paper or presentation, students will:

  • Identify a problem and a policy or law that attempts to solve it.
  • Explain one way the policy or law attempts to solve the problem OR explain one way the policy or law is enforced.
  • Identify individuals and/or groups who participated in the policy or law-making process.
  • Explain two or more ways in which individuals and/or groups participated in the lawmaking process.
  • Provide reasons for agreeing or disagreeing with the law or policy by explaining how the
  • law or policy promotes a right or democratic ideal with one or more supporting details.
  • List two or more sources including the title, author, type of source, and date of each source.