US – Our Foundations:The Boldt Decision

Lesson Plans – High School

1 | Our Foundations

Foundational Documents & The Boldt Decision (Boldt I and II)

United States History Curriculum
OSPI Tribal Sovereignty Curriculum for the Social Studies

Historical Era

1776 – 1791 Conflict and Alliance | 1890 – 1918 Assimilation | 1918 – 1939 Reorganization | 1939 – 1991 Termination to Self-Determination | 1945 – 1991 Termination to Self-Determination | 1991–Present Nation-Building

 

Social Studies GLEs:

Grade 9: 3.2.2, 4.1.2, 4.2.1, 4.2.2

Grade 10: 3.2.2, 4.1.2, 4.2.1, 4.2.2

Grade 11: 1.1.1, 1.1.2, 3.1.1, 3.2.2, 4.2.1, 4.2.2

Grade 12: 1.1.2, 3.1.1, 3.2.2, 4.2.1, 4.2.2

Corresponding CBA:

Constitutional Issues

Essential Questions:

1,2

Common Core State Standards

CCSS Grade HS US Foundational Documents The Boldt Decision I and II

Asset List

Multimedia

Multimedia

Video Content

Corresponding Chapters from the Regional Learning Project’s Required Curriculum Materials:

Ch. 1, 4 and 5

DVD: Tribal Perspectives of American History in the Northwest

Study Guide

DVD Chapter List

The DVD (75 minutes total running time) is divided into nine chapters that range from 3 to 27 minutes in length, listed here with time codes for each:

Chapter 1: Introduction (4:15 minutes)

Chapter 2: History Through Oral Tradition (7:20 min)

Chapter 3: Before Contact (6:55 min)

Chapter 4: First Contact (10:00 min)

Chapter 5: Advent of the Fur Trade and its Consequences (7:20 min)

Chapter 6: Missionaries and Early Settlers (6:50 min)

Chapter 7: The Treaties (27:00 min)

Chapter 8: Treaty Aftermath – Nez Perce Story (5:30 min)

Chapter 9: Reflections (3:55 min)

Corresponding Chapters from the Regional Learning Project’s Required Curriculum Materials:

Ch. 1

DVD: Contemporary Voices Along the Lewis and Clark Trail

Study Guide

DVD Chapter List

The DVD (28 minutes running time) is divided into five chapters that range from 3 to 10

minutes each, as follows:

Chapter 1: Introduction (9:10 minutes)

Chapter 2: Early Contact and its Consequences (3:00 min)

Chapter 3: Language (3:45 min)

Chapter 4: Respect (7:00 min)

Chapter 5: Continuity (5:00 min)

Corresponding Chapters from the Regional Learning Project’s Required Curriculum Materials:

Ch. 1

DVD: Native Homelands Along The Lewis and Clark Trail

Study Guide

DVD Chapter List

The DVD (35 minutes) is divided into nine chapters that range from 2 to 8 minutes each, as follows:

• Chapter 1: Introduction (2:00 minutes)

• Chapter 2: Homelands of the Mandan-Hidatsa (4:10 min)

• Chapter 3: Homeland of the Blackfeet (3:05 min)

• Chapter 4: Homeland of the Shoshone (3:05 min)

• Chapter 5: Homeland of the Salish (3:10 min)

• Chapter 6: Homelands of the Sahaptin-speaking Tribes of the Columbia River (8:10 min)

• Chapter 7: Homelands of the Upper Chinookan Tribes (3:30 min)

• Chapter 8: Homelands of the Lower Chinookan Tribes (5:00 min)

• Chapter 9: Close (0:45 min)

Handouts/Documents
Student Examples/projects
Lesson Overview

This unit “examines how the Boldt decision promotes justice as one of the goals of our nation,” as described in the Grade Level Expectations of the social studies GLEs. Through critical reading, discussion and inquiry, students explore the complexities of a landmark court decision that defines and protects traditional tribal hunting, fishing, and gathering rights that are guaranteed in the NW Indian treaties that granted non-Indian settlement in this region. While students are exploring Constitutional principles they will complete discussion questions in as little as one class period, or they can delve into the issues surrounding the Boldt Decision in creating graphic organizers and writing analyses to complete the “Constitutional Issues” CBA.

Level 1

LEVEL 1 LESSON: Students will gain a basic understanding of the 1974 Boldt Decision that defined and settled the treaty right of hunting, fishing, and harvesting in tribal “usual and accustomed” grounds.  After reading a brief article, students will create a political cartoon that analyzes the impact of the Boldt Decision on tribal and non-tribal people.

MATERIALS NEEDED:

  • (provided) The Boldt Decision article
  • (provided) Discussion questions and suggested responses to the Boldt Decision issue
  • (provided) Map of Washington State
  • (provided) Map of Ceded Areas of Washington State
  • (provided) Map of Indian reservations of Washington State

TEACHER PREPARATION:

STUDENT PREPARATION:

  • Basic understanding of Constitutional Principles

CLASSROOM SET UP:  None

PROCEDURES:

Day 1:

  1. Connect today’s activity to your Constitution unit by providing students current, real life, close to home examples of Constitutional principles. (Suggestion:  This might be part of a larger exercise where many constitutional principle examples are examined).
  2. Ask students to brainstorm symbols of social and political justice (olive branch, dove, peace sign, American flag, Martin Luther King, Jr., Rosa Parks, United Nations logo, etc.)
  3. Show a picture of a salmon and ask, “Is this a symbol of justice?”
  4. Why or why not?
  5. Discuss the significance of the salmon to NW tribal people.  See Spirit of the Salmon website as a reference.
  6. Make the following points as you discuss the salmon:
    1. At the time of the signing of the treaties that guaranteed tribal fishing rights, salmon were in abundance.  No one could have predicted such a drastic and devastating decline in salmon populations.
    2. Salmon were so abundant, that many tribal people say that fish along the Columbia were so thick during spawning that they could walk across the rive on their backs.
    3. The threat of salmon extinction also threatened the livelihood, lifeways, and very fabric of tribal people.
    4. This began a long battle called “The Fish Wars” where the United States—on behalf of 14 Northwest tribes—sued Washington State over tribal fishing rights.  This was not only an economic victory, it was a decision that promoted, and continues to promote, justice for Indian and non-Indian people.
    5. Distribute the article on the Boldt Decision
    6. Read aloud and emphasize the examples of injustice and justice.
    7. As homework or a classroom activity, have students create their political cartoon.  One is provided in the article as an example.  There are also political cartoon lesson plans if your students need more information on how to write and interpret political cartoons:  “Analyzing the Purpose and Meaning of Political Cartoons” on ReadWriteThink.org  http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/analyzing-purpose-meaning-political-794.html
    8. Share political cartoons at the next class.
    9. Upon completion, ask, “What does this 35 year-old decision do for Indians today?  Say about justice?”  Answers will vary.

IF YOU CHOOSE TO END YOUR STUDY HERE, SOME QUESTIONS TO PRESENT TO CLASSES AS YOUR STUDY CONTINUES:

  1. What are the Constitutional provisions for Indian tribes?  Are they still valid? (Review Supremacy and Commerce Clauses)
  2. Why is/was justice for Indian tribes and tribal people so hard to achieve?
Level 2

LEVEL 2 LESSON:

MATERIALS NEEDED:  All Level 1 materials

TEACHER PREPARATION: Level 1 preparation

STUDENT PREPARATION: Successful completion of Level 1 activities

CLASSROOM SET UP: None

Materials:

  1. Copies of the Against the Current article
  2. Copies of the Tribal/Non-Tribal Interpretations Graphic Organizer
  3. Copies of the Medicine Creek Treaty
  4. Copies of the Supremacy and Commerce Clauses
  5. Copies of the Bill of Rights

PROCEDURES:

Day 1:

  1. Instead of wrapping up the Level 1 lesson, proceed to the Writing Assignments contained in the Southern Poverty Law Center’s Against the Current article and discussion questions.
    1. Students will read the longer article.
    2. You can discuss as a class the accompanying questions.  Suggestion:
      1.                                                  i.    Have individuals respond to all five questions
      2.                                                 ii.    Break students into groups and have them prepare an extended response to one question.  They share with the rest of the class while the class takes notes on a Cornell note-taking sheet or the equivalent you use in your classroom.
      3. Distribute copies of the Medicine Creek Treaty, Supremacy & Commerce Clauses handout, tribal/non-tribal interpretations graphic organizer, and Bill of Rights. Students should discuss the interpretations each stakeholder has on the documents.
      4. HOMEWORK: Students complete the matrix that asks them to provide the tribal and non-tribal interpretations of the US Constitution and Bill of Rights and tribal treaties.

IF YOU CHOOSE TO END YOUR STUDY HERE, SOME QUESTIONS TO PRESENT TO CLASSES AS YOUR STUDY CONTINUES:

  1. What are the Constitutional provisions for Indian tribes?  Are they still valid? (Review Supremacy and Commerce Clauses)
  2. Why is/was justice for Indian tribes and tribal people so hard to achieve?
Level 3
LEVEL 3 LESSON:
Students will complete the “Constitutional Issues” CBA by writing essays or presenting to the class their evaluation of the constitutionality of the Boldt Decision and its impact on tribal and non-tribal people. See the guidelines handout for product parameters.