US – Movements and Issues at Home

Lesson Plans – High School

5 | Movements and Issues at Home

Indian Civil Rights and Self-Determination

United States History Curriculum
OSPI Tribal Sovereignty Curriculum for the Social Studies

Historical Era

1776 – 1791 Conflict and Alliance | 1890 – 1918 Assimilation | 1918 – 1939 Reorganization | 1939 – 1991 Termination to Self-Determination | 1945 – 1991 Termination to Self-Determination | 1991–Present Nation-Building

Social Studies GLEs:

Grade 9: 2.1.1, 2.2.1, 2.4.1, 3.2.2, 4.1.2, 4.2.2, 4.2.3, 4.3.1, 4.4.1

Grade 10: 2.1.1, 2.2.1, 2.4.1, 3.2.2, 4.1.2, 4.2.2, 4.2.3, 4.3.1, 4.4.1

Grade 11: 1.1.2, 1.2.2, 1.4.1, 2.1.1, 2.2.1, 2.4.1, 3.2.2, 4.1.2, 4.2.2, 4.2.3, 4.3.1, 4.4.1

Grade 12: 1.1.2, 1.2.2, 1.4.1, 2.1.1, 2.2.1, 2.4.1, 3.2.2, 4.2.2, 4.2.3, 4.3.1, 4.4.1

Corresponding CBA:

Dig Deep

Analyzing Sources

Essential Questions:

5


Asset List

Multimedia

Multimedia

Video Content

Corresponding Chapters from the Regional Learning Project’s Required Curriculum Materials:

Ch. 5

DVD: Contemporary Voices Along the Lewis and Clark Trail

Study Guide

DVD Chapter List

The DVD (28 minutes running time) is divided into five chapters that range from 3 to 10

minutes each, as follows:

Chapter 1: Introduction (9:10 minutes)

Chapter 2: Early Contact and its Consequences (3:00 min)

Chapter 3: Language (3:45 min)

Chapter 4: Respect (7:00 min)

Chapter 5: Continuity (5:00 min)

Handouts/Documents
Student Examples/projects
Lesson Overview
  1. A.   Level 1: (Approx. 2, 50 minute class period)

By the end of instruction, students will:

  •  Recognize that the Civil Rights Era also included a civil rights era for tribal people
  1. 1.    Students will summarize an interactive timeline of the Indian occupation of Alcatraz.
  2. 2.    Students will read an article on Indian activism and complete a dialectic journal.
  3. B.   Level 2: (Approx. 3, 50 minute class period)

By the end of instruction, students will:

  • understand the political and social aims of American Indian activism and the self-determination era and
  • understand at least two pieces of legislation that effectively began the self-determination era.
  1. 1.    Students will work in groups to create themed timelines on:
    1. a.    Indian Activism: AIM
    2. b.    Indian Activism: non-AIM
    3. c.    American Indian Women’s Service League
    4. d.     Fort Lawton Occupation
    5. e.    Tribal Self-Determination Legislation & Events
    6. 2.    Students will summarize three tribal self-determination legislation, events, and executive orders.
  2. C.    Level 3: (Approx. 9, 50 minute class period)

By the end of instruction, students will:

  • use oral history to compare the termination and self-determination eras and understand American Indian activism as an agent of change between the eras.
  • analyze and evaluate the aims and effects of at least one piece of federal self-determination legislation on a local tribe.
  1. 1.    Students will review oral history and strategies for conducting meaningful interviews.
  2. 2.    Students will formulate interview questions and watch video interviews of the following subjects:
    1. a.    Indian Occupation of Alcatraz
    2. b.    American Indian Women’s Service League
    3. c.     Fort Lawton Occupation
    4. d.    Tribal Self-Determination Legislation & Events
      1. 3.    Students will interview a community member or panel with memory of the Termination Era, American Indian activism, and the Self-Determination Era
      2. 4.    Students will evaluate their interview, publish a report of the interview, and present their findings.
      3. 5.    Students will reflect on the how American Indian activism affected a transition in federal policy towards American Indians from Termination to Self-Determination.
  • Recognize landmark court decision and legislation that affected and continues to affect tribal sovereignty and understand that tribal sovereignty enables tribes to protect their ways of life and the development of their nations (tribal sovereignty objectives 1 &  2)
  • Analyzes and evaluates how people in the US have addressed issues involved with the distribution of resources and sustainability in the past or present. (GLE 2.4.1, grade 11) (GLE 3.1.2, grade 11) Analyzes cultural interactions. (GLE 3.2.2, grade 11) Analyzes how local tribes used the court system to regain their sovereign rights.(GLE 4.2.2, grade 11) (GLE 4.3.1, grade 11) (GLE 5.2.1, grade 11)
  • Corresponding CBA: Dig Deep Analyzing Sources
Level 1

US History Movements and Issues at Home (1945 -1991)

Indian Civil Rights: A Statement for Tribal Self-Determination

Level 1:           Students will recognize that the Civil Rights Era also included a civil rights era for tribal people by studying a timeline of the Indian occupation of Alcatraz and creating a dialectic journal in response to an article.

Day 1-2

  • Motivate the lesson by asking students:
    • What do you know about Alcatraz Island?
    • What do you know about Civil Rights Movements in America?

 

  • Tell students Alcatraz was the site of a major American Indian Movement.

 

  • Distribute the student hand-out “We Hold the Rock: A Timeline” and tell students they will be summarizing major events during the American Indian occupation of Alcatraz.
  • Bring up the interactive (flash) timeline of the American Indian Occupation of Alcatraz at http://www.kqed.org/w/alcatraz/flash/movie.html
  • If you’re working as a class (recommended to enhance discussion), call on student volunteers to select the “drifting icons.”

 

 

http://www.kqed.org/w/alcatraz/flash/mov 1

  • Next, distribute the student hand-out “Indian Activism: A Dialectic Journal”
  • Explain to students that a dialectic journal is a way to report on an event using two different perspectives.  In the column on the left, they can report on a passage, phrase, quote, main idea, important event, key fact, name of a document, or anything else they feel is important to Indian Activism.  In the column on the right, they will use the same event, but this time report on a reaction, significance, connection, comparison, judge an idea, predict a future outcome, or reflect in any other way they feel is meaningful to them about the event.

 

Unsatisfied with a symbolic claim of Alcatraz,  Richard Oakes (Mohawk) leaped from the Monte Cristo and swam 250 yards to Alcatraz Island.  Although he left the island soon after reaching it, he swore to return

  • Ask students to report a reflection, reaction, or comment upon what has been recorded, give an opinion with supporting evidence, or make a prediction in the right side of their journal.

 

 

 

 

Extension

On September 21, 1972 Richard Oakes (Mohawk) died of a gunshot wound in northern California at the age of 30.  His killer, Michael Morgan was first charged with murder which was changed to involuntary manslaughter and eventually freed, outraging the Indian community.  Have students write a letter to the children and widow of Richard Oakes, discussing the stand he took in 1969 and its effect on all American Indians.

Looking Ahead to Level Two Curriculum:

If time allows, direct students to the website page for Indian Activism > Timeline at http://www.pbs.org/itvs/alcatrazisnotanisland/timeline2.html and ask them find out what happened in July 1970.

Ask students to hypothesize the different themes of the 22 legislative proposals that would support Indian self-determination (self-rule).

Level 2

Level 2:           Students will understand the political and social aims of American Indian activism and the self-determination era.

Students will understand at least two pieces of legislation that effectively began the self-determination era.

Day 1

  • Read or project the statements from the handout “Statistics – Portrait of American Indian Life from 1953 – 1970”
  • Ask students to fill in the blanks with their best estimates or guesses.
  • Direct students to the interactive (flash) website “47 Cents an Acre” at http://www.kqed.org/w/alcatraz/flash/movie.html
  • Discuss student estimates with actual answers as you uncover each statistic.

Day 1-3

 
  • Students will work in groups to complete a themed timeline on one of the following subjects:
  1. 1.      Timeline of Indian Activism:  AIM

Resource:  “Timeline of Indian Activism”

http://www.pbs.org/itvs/alcatrazisnotanisland/timeline.html

  1. 2.      Timeline of Indian Activism: non-AIM

Resource:  “Timeline of Indian Activism”

http://www.pbs.org/itvs/alcatrazisnotanisland/timeline.html

  1. Timeline of the American Indian Women’s Service League

Resource: “American Indian Women’s Service League”

http://depts.washington.edu/civilr/AIWSL.htm

  1. Timeline of Fort Lawton Occupation 1969 – 1977

Resource:  “By Right of Discovery”

http://depts.washington.edu/civilr/FtLawton_takeover.htm

  1. Timeline of self-determination legislation, executive orders, and events from 1953 – 1991 (this group is special in that a framework for the timeline will be provided, but students in this group must compile the majority of their timeline from interviewing and gathering information from students in other groups).

Resources:  “Time of Tribal Self-Determination: A Framework” student hand-out

“Laws Reflect Changing Status of American Indians in US History”

http://www.america.gov/st/peopleplace-english/2008/November/20061106163901bpuh0.5341455.html

  • Groups #1-4 will also be responsible for additional research and contributing at least 3 entries to the fifth group’s (Group #5) timeline of self-determination legislation, executive orders, and events.
  • Ask group members in #1-4 to identify a group spokesperson to be interviewed by group #5 about the following subjects:
Group #1: AIM Group #2: non-AIM Group #3: AIWSL Group#4: Ft. Lawton
1978 -  Santa Clara v. Martinez 1953 – Public Law 280 1950’s – Federal Tribal Relocation Program 1953 – House Concurrent Resolution 108
1982 – Indian Mineral Development Act 1987 – California v. Cabazon 1960’s – Economic Development and War on Poverty 1950’s – Federal Tribal Relocation Program
1990 – Native American Languages Act 1988 – Indian Gaming Regulatory Act 1972 – Indian Education Act 1960’s – Economic Development and War on Poverty
  • Students will present their themed timelines as a group
Level 3

US History Movements and Issues at Home (1945 -1991)

Indian Civil Rights & Self-Determination:  Oral History Project

Level 3:           Students will use oral history to compare the termination and self-determination eras and understand American Indian activism as an agent of change between the eras.

Students will analyze and evaluate the aims and effects of at least one piece of federal self-determination legislation on a local tribe.

Day 1

  • Introduce the students to oral history using the hand-out “Oral History Project: American Indian Activism as an Agent of Change from Termination to Self-Determination
  • Research a possible interviewees or a panel of guest speakers for the students to interview that will be able to speak on the Termination Era, American Indian activism, and Tribal Self-Determination.
  • You will need to contact these individuals in advance to set-up dates for interviews or conference calls that work well with your class period.
  • Have students practice composing interview questions
  • Give students 5 minutes to formulate interview questions regarding:
IDEAS for SPEAKERS

  • Local tribal council
  • Tribal Cultural Resource Department
  • United Indians of All Tribes
  • American Indian Women Service League
  • Seattle Indian Health Board
  • American Indian Vietnam Veteran
  • Daybreak Star Staff
The American Indian Occupation of Alcatraz

  • Show students the video interviews of:

Adam Fortunate Eagle, Dr. LaNada Boyer, Richard Oakes, Millie Ketcheshawno, Denise Quitiquit, John Trudell, and Don Patterson http://www.pbs.org/itvs/alcatrazisnotanisland/people.html

 

  • After viewing the interview, discuss what questions were/weren’t answered.  What statements did the American Indian activists make that gave ideas for good interview questions.
 
Day 2
  • Give students 5 minutes to formulate interview questions regarding:

The American Indian Occupation of Fort Lawton and the establishment of a Seattle Indian community center

  • Show students the video interviews of:

Randy Lewis

http://depts.washington.edu/civilr/lewis_randy.htm

Lawney Reyes

http://depts.washington.edu/civilr/reyes.htm

Various American Indian activists

http://www.seattlechannel.org/videos/ video.asp?ID=3071012

Essex Porter http://www.kirotv.com/video/22919205/index.html

  • After viewing the interview, discuss what questions were/weren’t answered.  What statements did somebody make that gave ideas for good interview questions.
 
  • Practice composing interview questions
  • Give students 5 minutes to formulate interview questions regarding:

American Indian Women Service League

  • Show students the video interview of:

 

Ramona Bennet

http://depts.washington.edu/civilr/bennett.htm

 

  • After viewing the interview, discuss what questions were/weren’t answered.  What statements did Ramona Bennet make that gave ideas for good interview questions?
Day 3 – 4
  • Practice composing interview questions
  • Give students 5 minutes to formulate interview questions regarding:

Tribal Self-Determination and the Muckleshoot Tribe

  • Show students the video interview of:

 

Willard Bill

http://depts.washington.edu/civilr/bill.htm

 

  • After viewing the interview, discuss what questions were/weren’t answered.  What statements did Willard Bill make that gave ideas for good interview questions?
 
  • Inform students there will be a guest speaker coming to the class for them to interview.  Give some background information for the speaker.  Ask students to use what they’ve learned about interviewing to formulate a list of questions for the interviewee(s).
  • Practice interviewing techniques by having a student interview you or another student, with other students observing and then discuss what they saw followed by a debriefing session where you reflect on the experience, discuss what kinds of questions worked best, and identify strategies for improving the interview.
  • Ask the students to decide whether the interview will be:

elaborate (filmed and edited),

moderate (taped and transcribed, with editing), or

elementary (interview with notes).

 

Day 5
  • Students carry out oral history interviews.

 
REMEMBER!  If you are interviewing an elder, it is customary to bring a gift.  A hand-made item or food is perfectly acceptable.

Day 6-7
  • Students evaluate their interview, edit and shape their interview, evaluate bias and point of view, and plan a report on their interview subject.
Publishing. Students make either a:

  • book,
  • a wall display,
  • a website, or
  • other public display of their interviews and what they learned about this period. Photographs of the interview subject from the past and today, can enhance such displays.
Day 8
Panel and audience. The day of presentations provides an excellent opportunity to provide students with a real audience. Consider inviting:

  • parents,
  • other teachers (during their conference periods),
  •  administrators,
  • and community members into your classroom to hear the presentations and to also be on hand afterward to congratulate project teams.
Day 9
Lead a class discussion and evaluation of:

  • American Indian transformation of federal-Indian policy
  • A comparison of the Termination and Self-Determination eras
  • An analysis of the aims and effects of federal self-determination legislation
Final reflection. In addition, students write a final reflection on the unit, discussing how American Indian activism affected a transition in federal policy towards American Indians from Termination to Self-Determination. This can be anything from extended journal writing and a learning log to a more formal essay.