US – World War II, the Cold War and Intl. Relations

Lesson Plans – High School

4 | World War II, the Cold War, and International Relations

Termination and Relocation

United States History Curriculum
OSPI Tribal Sovereignty Curriculum for the Social Studies

Historical Era

1776 – 1791 Conflict and Alliance | 1890 – 1918 Assimilation | 1918 – 1939 Reorganization | 1939 – 1991 Termination to Self-Determination | 1945 – 1991 Termination to Self-Determination | 1991–Present Nation-Building

Social Studies GLEs:

Grade 9: 1.3.1, 3.2.2, 3.2.3, 3.3.1. 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Grade 10: 1.3.1, 3.2.2, 3.2.3, 3.3.1, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Grade 11: 1.2.2, 1.3.1, 3.1.1, 3.2.2, 3.2.3, 3.3.1, 4.1.2, 4.4.1

Grade 12: 1.2.2, 1.3.1, 3.1.1, 3.2.2, 3.2.3, 3.3.1, 4.4.1

Corresponding CBA:

U.S. Foreign Policy

Checks and Balances

Essential Questions:

4,5

Common Core State Standards

CCSS Grade HS US WWII ColdWar International Relations

Asset List

Multimedia

Multimedia

Video Content

Corresponding Chapters from the Regional Learning Project’s Required Curriculum Materials:

Ch. 4

DVD: Contemporary Voices Along the Lewis and Clark Trail

Study Guide

DVD Chapter List

The DVD (28 minutes running time) is divided into five chapters that range from 3 to 10

minutes each, as follows:

Chapter 1: Introduction (9:10 minutes)

Chapter 2: Early Contact and its Consequences (3:00 min)

Chapter 3: Language (3:45 min)

Chapter 4: Respect (7:00 min)

Chapter 5: Continuity (5:00 min)

Handouts/Documents
Student Examples/projects
Lesson Overview

US History World War II, The Cold War, & International Relations (1939-1991)

Termination & Relocation

By the end of instruction, students will:

  • Recognizes House Concurrent Resolution 108, Public Law 280, and the federal “Relocation” program that affected and continues to affect tribal sovereignty, the federal-Indian trust relationship, and tribal development.  (tribal sovereignty objectives 1 & 2)
  • Distinguish between federally and non-federally recognized tribes. (tribal sovereignty objective 5)
  • Examines the underlying assumptions of the US Termination policy (GLE 5.1.1, grade 11) (GLE 1.3.1, grade 11) (GLE 2.2.1, grade 11) (GLE 2.2.2, grade 11) (GLE 4.2.3, grade 11) (GLE 4.3.2, grade 11) (GLE 5.1.2, grade 11)

Aligned with CBA: Foreign Policies & Checks & Balances

Level 1

US History World War II, The Cold War, & International Relations (1939-1991)

Termination & Relocation

Level 1:           Student will read an article giving a brief overview of the Termination Era, break into groups and read two different perspectives on Termination, and debate as either a member of a group representing the Klamath and opposed to termination or as a member of a group representing the US Government and supporting termination.

Day 1

  • Students read the article ““Termination, Relocation, and PL280: Introduction” (from the Indian Land Tenure Standard 2 Curriculum – lesson 4) found under the INTRODUCTION tab of the webquest:

http://zunal.com/introduction.php?w=64555

  • Split the class into two groups – a group representing members of the US government seeking to terminate the Klamath and a group representing Klamaths opposed to termination.
  • Review the Klamath Tribe’s statement on their termination and restoration,

http://www.klamathtribes.org/information/background/termination.html This will be  available to students representing Klamath members opposed to termination in the Resources section under the webquest tabs of “TASK” and “PROCESS.”

  • Review and excerpt from the 1957 article, “Termination of Federal Supervision: The Removal of Restrictions Over Indian Property and Person,” by Arthur V. Watkins, a senator from Utah and former chairman of the Indian Subcommittee of the Senate Interior Committee at:

http://www.personal.utulsa.edu/~nathan-wilson/watkins.pdf

This will be available to students representing the US government in favor of Termination in the Resources section under the webquest tabs of “TASK” and “PROCESS.”

  • Explain to the students that they will explore the arguments for and against this policy in a mock hearing in which students will debate about whether or not the Klamath Tribe should be terminated.  The hearing should be imagined to take place before the Klamath Termination Act of 1954.
  • Before the debate, have each group brainstorm a list of arguments either for or against the termination of the Klamath which can be summarized in a five minute presentation by a representative from each group.
  • After each presentation, allow the groups to debate the matter further for about 10 minutes. They should remain in their roles until this debate is over.
  • After the debate, ask the students to discuss what they really think about the termination of the Klamath.

 Looking Ahead to Level Two Curriculum:

If time allows, Ask students to hypothesize what actually happened after the termination of the Klamath, particularly in socio-economic and cultural terms.

Level 2

US History World War II, The Cold War, & International Relations (1939-1991)

Termination & Relocation

Level 2:           Students will evaluate how the federal Relocation program under the policy of Termination affected various tribal nations through the stories of individual members of the tribe.

Students will analyze why the federal Relocation program was implemented.

Day 1

  • Distribute a sheet of 8 ½ x 11 paper to each student.
  • Have students fold the paper into fourths.
  • Ask students to label a box “Indian Reservation”.  Give students 1 minute to draw a picture of a reservation or create a collection of words that describe a reservation.
  • Ask students to label a box “Indian” or “Native American”.  Give students 1 minute to draw a picture of an Indian or create a collection of words that describe an Indian.
  • Ask students to label a box “City”.  Give students 1 minute to draw a picture of a city or create a collection of words that describe a city.
  • Ask students to label a box “Urban Indian”.  Give students 1 minute to draw a picture of an “Urban Indian” or create a collection of words that may describe an “Urban Indian.”  You may tell students that “Urban Indian” is a term used to describe an Indian living in a city.

  • Create a Venn diagram on the board with one side that says “INDIAN RESERVATION” and one side that says “CITY”.

 

  • Ask students to give words that describe “INDIAN RESERVATION” based off their pictures or words.
  • Ask students to give words that describe “CITY” based off their pictures or words.
  • As a class decide what the city and an Indian reservation have in common based off student responses and write it in the center of the venn diagram.
  • Lead students through a discussion of the following questions:
    • What does a city like Seattle have in common with an Indian Reservation?
    • An Indian living on the reservation may be easy to describe, but how would you describe an Indian living in a city?
    • How do you think your identity would change if you moved to the city/reservation today? (change this question to fit the setting of your school).
    • Do you think living in a city would strengthen or weaken an Indian’s cultural identity?  Why?
  • Read the following statements to students:
Relocation was a federal program begun in the 1950s in which Indian families were moved (relocated) to cities where jobs and housing for them was found
By 1955 3,400 Indians were living in low-rent apartments or housing developments in the cities
By 1960 the U.S. Census counted nearly a 3rd of the country’s 525,000 NDNs as “Urban NDNs” leading to a “[rearrangement of] the map of Indian America”
  • Students will visit the “RWS Series: Concrete Indians – Portraits of the Urban Indian Experience” at http://www.redworks.ca/?page_id=1841
  • Distribute an index card to each student.
  • Ask students to write “Relocation & the Urban Indian Experience” at the top of the card.
  • Students will describe the Relocation program and the urban Indian experience based off classroom discussion and the RWS Series.
  • Collect the cards before class ends.

Day 2

  • Students will listen to “PRX Piece: Urban Indian Experience: Episode 2 – A Place to Call Home”
  • As students listen they will answer multiple choice questions using the QUIZ TAB on the webquest.  (A hardcopy of this “Federal Relocation Quiz” is also available)
  • After listening to the PRX Piece, students will answer several short answer questions about what they heard. (hardcopy of the “Federal Relocation Questions” is also available)

Special Instructions for Listening to

PRX Piece: Urban Indian Experience: Episode 2 – 

A Place to Call Home”

Materials:

  • Speakers for the entire class to listen
  • OR headphones for students to listen individually
  • RealPlayer software
  • Students will use the backside of their index card from the previous day to add two reasons why the federal Relocation program was implemented

Day 3

  • Students will watch a PBS video clip about the Relocation Program at:

http://www.pbs.org/indiancountry/history/relocate.html

  • Students will read, “The Urban Relocation Program” found at:

http://www.pbs.org/indiancountry/history/relocate.html

  • Students will discover some of the Relocation cities and compare them to the placement of Indian Reservations using the interactive map at:

http://www.pbs.org/indiancountry/history/interactive_map.html

  • Students will complete the “Federal Relocation” graphic organizer
Level 3

US History World War II, The Cold War, & International Relations (1939-1991)

Termination & Relocation

Level 3:           Students will compare and contrast the process of gaining recognition for the Klamath tribe and the Duwamish tribe and state the reasons for each tribe’s eventual success or failure in gaining recognition.  Students will recognize and criticize the process of gaining tribal recognition for its value in endorsing a distinct cultural identity.

Students will analyze why Public Law 280 was implemented, study the effects of PL280 on various tribes and Nations around the country, and evaluate how PL280 affected the federal, state, and tribal governments.

Day 1-2

  • Ask students to imagine they are in a large room full of thousands of people from all over the world.  They must quickly identify the Americans in the room.
  • Ask the students how they would find the other Americans in the room.  What do Americans have in common that makes them different from other people in the room?  What kinds of questions could they ask an individual to discover whether she or he is an American (without using the word “American”)?
  • Collect student responses on the board.  Save these for a later discussion.
  • Ask students what might make it difficult to find all the Americans in the room?

  • Remind students that the Klamath were terminated as a tribe in the 1950s, and they were no longer eligible for federal housing, social services, medical program, economic development, or educational assistance.  Direct students to view the “Klamath Termination Profile – Before and After” on the webquest in the Resources under the “PROCESS” tab which summarizes the overall welfare of the Klamath before and after Termination.

Day 3

  • Students analyze how the tribe they’re studying met or did not meet the qualifications as a tribe for recognition using the appropriate article and video clip.
  • Students create a class chart for recognition telling how the tribe met or did not meet the qualification for federal recognition as a tribe.
  • Students will read “Tribes Forced to Prove Existence” available at http://www.manataka.org/page240.htmland may also read
    • Uncertainties Abound for Future Gaming Tribes” and
    • US Pledges Overhaul of Federal Tribal Recognition System“ available in the resources section of the webquest PROCESS section.

Day 4

  • Review the student responses for identifying Americans.
  • Lead a classroom discussion based on the following questions:
    • How do the 7 criteria for tribal federal recognition compare to your responses for how to identify Americans?
    • Do you feel the 7 criteria for tribal federal recognition is far?  Why or why not
    • Why would a tribe want to gain federal recognition?
    • Does the tribal federal recognition system leave room for corruption? How?
    • How do members of unrecognized tribal members compare to Urban Indians?
    • What types of changes do you predict there will be in the 7 criteria for tribal federal recognition?

Day 5

  • Begin today’s lesson with a short set of three free-writes (the students write for a short period of time usually less than a minute).  A statement will be read following each free-write.  A timer or clock with a second hand would be helpful.
  • Tell students that you will be giving them a topic to write about for a minute.  What they write will not be shared unless they want to share it and the only rule during a free-write is that they all must write.
  • Ask students to write the prompt for the free-write, “What should happen to a non-Indian father if he abuses his Indian child while living on an Indian reservation?” Give the students one minute to write.
  • Share the following statement:

A non-Indian father is not prosecuted for misdemeanor abuse of his Indian child on an Indian reservation because the tribe lacks jurisdiction to prosecute non-Indians, the state lacks jurisdiction to prosecute offenses involving Indians and committed in Indian country, and the U.S. attorney lacks resources to prosecute misdemeanors.

(http://www.tribal-institute.org/articles/feldman1.htm)

  • Ask Students to write the prompt for the free-write, “An Indian and a non-Indian go on a crime spree.  Which of the following crime represents the most serious of their offenses: robbing a tribal casino, receiving a speeding ticket in Phoenix, robbing a convenience store in California, or trespassing on a beach in Mexico? Should they both be prosecuted? Explain”
  • Share the following statement:

Bonnie, an Indian, and Clyde, a non-Indian who resides with Bonnie in Indian country, rob the tribal casino, receive a speeding ticket in Phoenix, rob a convenience store in California, and trespass on the beach in Mexico. They could both be fully prosecuted by all jurisdictions in which they committed their offenses except the Indian tribal jurisdiction where they reside and where they committed the most serious crime. The tribe could only prosecute Bonnie for a misdemeanor and could not prosecute Clyde at all. (http://www.tribal-institute.org/articles/feldman1.htm)

  • Tell students that the scenarios described represent the problem of jurisdiction created in 1953 by Public Law 280 which gave states power to extend their criminal and civil law over Indian Reservations.  Public Law 280 also falls under the umbrella of a rapid assimilation program of this time period along with Termination and federal Relocation.
  • Ask student to visit a series of website and complete a handout “Public Law 280”

Public Law 280: Issues and Concerns for Victims of Crime in Indian Country

http://www.aidainc.net/Publications/pl280.htm

Questions and Answers about Public Law 280

http://www.tribal-institute.org/articles/goldberg.htm

Resolving State-Tribal Jurisdictional Dilemmas

http://www.tribal-institute.org/articles/feldman1.htm

Public Law 280 on the Quinalt Reservation

http://yalelewislaw.blogspot.com/2008/06/public-law-280-on-quinalt-reservation.html

  • Write a short essay evaluating how PL280 affects the federal, state, and tribal governments.

Day 6 – 7 (OPTIONAL)

  • Obtain a copy of the movie Thunderheart.  As students watch the movie, they will complete a hand-out of multiple choice, true/false, and short answer questions.

Quiz, Questions & Answer Key