US – Fighting for Independence

Lesson Plans – Middle School

1 | US-Fighting for Independence

Revolution and Constitution in Indian Country

US History Curriculum
OSPI Tribal Sovereignty Curriculum for the Social Studies

Historical Era

1776 – 1815 Conflict and Alliance | 1801 – 1850 Indian Removal | 1850 – 1877 Treaty Era | 1870 – 1900 Assimilation | 1900 – Present Termination to Self-Determination

Social Studies GLEs:

Grade 6: 1.2.3, 3.2.2, 3.2.3, 4.1.2, 4.2.1, 4.3.1

Grade 7: 1.1.1, 1.2.3, 3.2.2, 3.2.3, 4.1.2, 4.2.1, 4.3.1

Grade 8: 1.1.1, 1.2.3, 3.2.2, 3.2.3, 4.1.2, 4.2.1, 4.3.1

Corresponding CBA:

Causes of Conflict

Essential Questions:

1,2


Asset List

Multimedia

Multimedia

Video Content

Corresponding Chapters from the Regional Learning Project’s Required Curriculum Materials:

Ch. 1 – 4

DVD: Tribal Perspectives of American History in the Northwest

Study Guide

DVD Chapter List

The DVD (75 minutes total running time) is divided into nine chapters that range from 3 to 27 minutes in length, listed here with time codes for each:

Chapter 1: Introduction (4:15 minutes)

Chapter 2: History Through Oral Tradition (7:20 min)

Chapter 3: Before Contact (6:55 min)

Chapter 4: First Contact (10:00 min)

Chapter 5: Advent of the Fur Trade and its Consequences (7:20 min)

Chapter 6: Missionaries and Early Settlers (6:50 min)

Chapter 7: The Treaties (27:00 min)

Chapter 8: Treaty Aftermath – Nez Perce Story (5:30 min)

Chapter 9: Reflections (3:55 min)

Corresponding Chapters from the Regional Learning Project’s Required Curriculum Materials:

Ch. 1 and 2

DVD: Contemporary Voices Along the Lewis and Clark Trail

Study Guide

DVD Chapter List

The DVD (28 minutes running time) is divided into five chapters that range from 3 to 10

minutes each, as follows:

Chapter 1: Introduction (9:10 minutes)

Chapter 2: Early Contact and its Consequences (3:00 min)

Chapter 3: Language (3:45 min)

Chapter 4: Respect (7:00 min)

Chapter 5: Continuity (5:00 min)

Corresponding Chapters from the Regional Learning Project’s Required Curriculum Materials:

Ch. 1 and 6

DVD: Native Homelands Along The Lewis and Clark Trail

Study Guide

DVD Chapter List

The DVD (35 minutes) is divided into nine chapters that range from 2 to 8 minutes each, as follows:

Chapter 1: Introduction (2:00 minutes)

• Chapter 2: Homelands of the Mandan-Hidatsa (4:10 min)

• Chapter 3: Homeland of the Blackfeet (3:05 min)

• Chapter 4: Homeland of the Shoshone (3:05 min)

• Chapter 5: Homeland of the Salish (3:10 min)

Chapter 6: Homelands of the Sahaptin-speaking Tribes of the Columbia River (8:10 min)

• Chapter 7: Homelands of the Upper Chinookan Tribes (3:30 min)

• Chapter 8: Homelands of the Lower Chinookan Tribes (5:00 min)

• Chapter 9: Close (0:45 min)

Handouts/Documents
Student Examples/projects
WebQuest

A Web Quest for OSPI’s Since Time Immemorial Tribal Sovereignty

The US Constitution, Treaties and Northwest Tribes

Lesson Overview

Lesson 1 Overview

Students will read an article about how the US Constitution’s Supremacy and Commerce Clauses set up relationships with Indian nations that is still in effect today. Depending on reading level, students can complete a crossword puzzle and/or complete the study guide.

Lesson 2 Overview

Building on Level 1, this lesson explores the ideals and realities of the enforcement of tribal treaties. Students will complete a graphic organizer that asks them to explain and provide examples of Constitutional ideals, including treaties being the “Supreme law of the land.” The Treaty of Greenville (1795) with Northeastern tribes as well as examples of treaties in the Northwest will serve as exemplars regarding the ideal of a treaty agreement and the realities endured by nearly all Indian nations who entered into treaties with the US Government. This level is taught in the context of your Constitution unit when you teach about the structure of the document as well as the ideals contained in the Bill of Rights.

Lesson 3 Overview

Students build on their Level 1 and 2 activities by researching issues in their area that pertain to treaty rights. In groups of three they will write, produce, and release a public service announcement that defends their position on the enforcement of treaty rights.

Level 1

The American Indian and the Constitution—LEVEL 1

Framing the Constitution (1776-1815)

GLEs ADDRESSED: 4.3.2, 5.4.1,

CORRESPONDING CBA:  Constitutional Issues

COMMON CORE STANDARDS FOR EACH LEVEL:              

 

Level 1   Students will be able to…

Key Ideas and Details:

  1. Cite specific textual evidence to support an opinion on the importance of treaties
  2. Explain the specific language in the US Constitution that defines the United States’ relationship with the several tribes within US borders
  3. Explain the unique relationship between the United States and Indian tribes

Craft and Structure:

  1. Determine the meaning of the concepts: tribal sovereignty, tribal nation, time immemorial, government-to-government relationships, and Centennial Accord.

LEVEL 1 LESSON: The US Constitution and Tribal Nations: 1 hour

Students will read an article about how the US Constitution’s Supremacy and Commerce Clauses set up relationships with Indian nations that is still in effect today.  Depending on reading level, students can complete a crossword puzzle and/or complete the study guide.

*Note: If you plan to teach Level 3, please consult your education or title program director to help you communicate with your local tribe/s.  This can be a lengthy process.

Step 1.     Teacher Prep:

  1. Photocopy a classroom set of the article “My Country ‘Tis of Thee, Sweet Land of…Tribal Sovereignty” and the corresponding study guide.
  2. Photocopy a classroom set of the crossword puzzle.
  3. Determine whether you will scaffold the reading or have students read to each other in pairs.  Jig-sawing the article is not recommended. If you pair students, make sure they are at similar reading levels.
  4. Prepare to project the pdf map “Tribal Ceded Areas.”  It has live links to the treaties tribes made with the US, so an option would be to show the text of those treaties.
  5. Make copies of the Greenville Treaty and Founding Fathers articles if you plan to teach Level 2.

Step 2.     Review the Revolution article from the STI unit on Indians and the Revolution.

Step 3.     Recall students’ study of the American Revolution and Declaration of Independence and how both united 13 separate governments into one government.  If you taught any materials from the Indians and the Revolution STI Unit, remind them that as the colonies gained their independence, Indian nations lost theirs—but only to a degree.

  1. Ask students, “What happened to Indian tribes after the United States gained their independence?  Where did they go?”
  2. Ask students, “What do you think the writing of the US Constitution has to do with Indian tribes?”

Step 4.     Announce that today you will discover the answers to those questions because they affect each and every one of them.  Further, this will set the stage for exploring the Bill of Rights and the discrepancies between the ideals set forth in the Constitution and the realities of how those ideals carried out.

Step 5.     Read the article “My Country ‘Tis of Thee, Sweet Land of…Tribal Sovereignty” according to your classroom’s reading needs.  Scaffold as needed.

Step 6.     In pairs or groups, have students complete the study guide.  Depending on your class’s reading and comprehension level, you might assign these individually or as homework.

Step 7.     For lower level learners you might choose the crossword puzzle as an activity to introduce the difficult concepts contained in the article.

Step 8.     Discuss the responses to the study guide and invite students to present and explain their drawings for item 9 in the study guide.

Step 9.     Ask what these treaties have to do with them—individually? (They live exactly where they are precisely because of the Constitution and the treaties.)

Step 10. Connect the article and responses to the Constitution and 1787 by explaining…

  1. -that even though it was nearly 100 years before northwest tribes were subject to the US Constitution, tribes in the northeast were experiencing the same things
  2. -there were discrepancies between the Constitutional ideals and the realities created within in the Constitution (e.g., the 3/5ths Clause and the Bill of Rights)
  3. -these discrepancies will come up again and again and in their lifetimes.  Some may have already experienced them.

Step 11. Homework (If moving on to Level 2.  If not, read them as a reference for the rest of your unit of study):

  1. Divide the class in half and assign one to read the “Greenville Treaty” article and half to read the “Founding Fathers” article.
  2. Students will complete Cornell Notes (see handout) in preparation for a small group discussion.

NOTE: You need not teach Levels 1 and 2 in consecutive days.  If you wish to introduce the rest of the Constitution and Bill of Rights, do so, and then come back to Level 2.

Level 2

The American Indian and the Constitution—LEVEL 2

Framing the Constitution (1776-1815)

GLEs ADDRESSED: 4.3.2, 5.4.1,

CORRESPONDING CBA: Constitutional Issues

COMMON CORE STANDARDS FOR EACH LEVEL:              

 

Level 2   Students will be able to…

Key Ideas and Details:

  1. Cite specific textual evidence to support an opinion on the importance of treaties
  2. Explain the specific language in the US Constitution that defines the United States’ relationship with the several tribes within US borders
  3. Explain the unique relationship between the United States and Indian tribes

Craft and Structure:

  1. Determine the meaning of the concepts: tribal sovereignty, tribal nation, time immemorial, government-to-government relationships, and Centennial Accord.

LEVEL 2 LESSON: The Ideals and Realities of the US Constitution: 3 – 4 hours

Building on Level 1, this lesson explores the ideals and realities of the enforcement of tribal treaties.  Students will complete a graphic organizer that asks them to explain and provide examples of Constitutional ideals, including treaties being the “Supreme law of the land.”  The Treaty of Greenville (1795) with Northeastern tribes as well as examples of treaties in the Northwest will serve as exemplars regarding the ideal of a treaty agreement and the realities endured by nearly all Indian nations who entered into treaties with the US Government.  This level is taught in the context of your Constitution unit when you teach about the structure of the document as well as the ideals contained in the Bill of Rights. 

*Note: If you plan to teach Level 3, please consult your education or title program director to help you communicate with your local tribe/s.  This can be a lengthy process.

Step 1.      Teacher Prep:

  1. Photocopy class sets of the Greenville Treaty” and “Founding Fathers” articles
  2. Photocopy “Let’s Make a Deal!” only if assigning it as homework.
  3. Photocopy class sets of the transcript of Chapter 7—The Treaties in the video series “Tribal Perspectives of American History in the Northwest.”  These streaming and downloadable videos are available on OSPI’s website: Indian-ed.org. There are limited DVD copies of the video series.  Contact OSPI for inquiries.

Step 2.      Ask students who read Greenville Treaty to pair up with students who read the Founding Fathers.  Each will explain their article to the other.  (If it has not been assigned as homework, pair up students to read aloud and complete their Cornell Notes together or as homework)

Step 3.      On a separate piece of paper, the partners will compare the main ideas and concepts in each article.  They can do a simple Venn diagram.  Two pairs can join to form a group of four and each pair add to their diagrams.

Step 4.      Each group elects one spokesperson (usually the one who contributed the least in the discussion.  Announce this will be the case and give each group a few minutes to prepare that student.) Each group shares one comparison.

Step 5.      Students recall the ideals in the Constitution:  Justice, Equality, Life, Pursuit of Happiness, Liberty, Common Good, Diversity, Truth, Popular Sovereignty, Patriotism.  Connect to the two articles: Which of the ideals are apparent in the two articles?

Step 6.      Either as homework or  a warm-up/opening activity for the next class, project the “Let’s Make a Deal!” writing assignment.

Step 7.      Conduct an informal Socratic seminar, an all class or small group discussion based on students’ writing.  Conclude with the question, “How would you feel if the person you had made an agreement with was the President of the United States?”

Step 8.      Next class will follow the lessons contained in the teacher guide for Chapter 7—The Treaties in the video series “Tribal Perspectives of American History in the Northwest.”  The study guide is downloadable and available in the “Videos” page of Indian-ed.org.

Step 9.      Assign as homework or devote one more class hour to complete the Constitutional Clauses Graphic Organizer and share conclusions.

Step 10.   Wrap up:  Review the concepts learned in the past 2 – 3 days.  Pose the question, “What does this mean for Indians and non-Indians today?”  Assess understanding and analysis by conducting and in-class essay, explaining their conclusions regarding Constitutional ideals and Indian realities.  They can use their graphic organizers and any other materials as guides.

NOTE: If moving on to Level 3, students will use the graphic organizers to focus their position statements for their presentations.  Make sure they meet standard before you launch Level 3.

Level 3

The American Indian and the Constitution—LEVEL 3

Framing the Constitution (1776-1815)

 GLEs ADDRESSED: 4.3.2, 5.4.1,

CORRESPONDING CBA: Constitutional Issues

COMMON CORE STANDARDS FOR EACH LEVEL:              

 

Level 3   Students will be able to…

Key Ideas and Details:

  1. Cite specific textual evidence to support an opinion on the importance of treaties
  2. Explain the specific language in the US Constitution that defines the United States’ relationship with the several tribes within US borders
  3. Explain the unique relationship between the United States and Indian tribes

Craft and Structure:

  1. Determine the meaning of the concepts: tribal sovereignty, tribal nation, time immemorial, government-to-government relationships, and Centennial Accord.

LEVEL 3 LESSON: Enforcing Treaty Rights: 8 – 10 hours

Students build on their Level 1 and 2 activities by researching issues in their area that pertain to treaty rights.  In groups of three they will write, produce, and release a public service announcement that defends their position on the enforcement of treaty rights.

*Note: If you plan to teach Level 3, please consult your education or title program director to help you communicate with your local tribe/s.  This can be a lengthy process.

Step 1.  Make copies of the “Constitutional Issues” CBA Rubric.

Step 2.  Locate and have ready the “The U.S. Constitution, Treaties and Northwest Tribes” WebQuest to project to the class.  Make copies for those who do not have at-home internet access if you expect students to analyze documents as homework.

Step 3.  Ask students to recall their “Let’s Make a Deal” writing warm-up from Level 2.  Ask them to add to their writing by responding to the following questions:

  1. “How did your relationship with the person change?
  2. Do you trust that person anymore?
  3. If you make another deal with this person, how will you change to make the deal fair?”

Step 4.    Connect their experience to the experiences with tribes who entered into treaties with the United States.  How do they think the past experiences with the U.S. government affects the relationships the tribal nations have with the federal, state, and local governments? How do the conflicting ideals and realities of the U.S. Constitution impact tribes today?

Step 5.  Break the students into groups of three.  Each group will analyze and evaluate how a local tribe or tribes dealt with a current treaty issue and present their positions in the form of a public service announcement or oral presentation.

Step 6.  Brainstorm what students think the issues might be (Expect at first the typical, more publicized issues facing tribal people, but push them to consider more issues—Ask, for example, why would issues on reservations be much different from issues in a non-Indian community?)

  1. Health
  2. Affordable housing
  3. Unemployment
  4. Tribal Businesses (also called Tribal Enterprise)
  5. Whaling/Fishing Rights
  6. Hunting & Gathering Rights
  7. Taxation (see “Taxing Times in Native America” article in the high school STI Taxation Unit)
  8. Others?

Step 7.    Ask them what the U.S. Constitution has to do with these issues.  It should be plain to them: these treaty rights stem from the Supremacy and Commerce Clauses.  Use the diagram below to show students graphically the impact the Constitution has on tribes.

Step 8.  Explain that even though the treaties into which Indian nations entered are supposed to be the supreme law of the land, it has historically been up to individual tribes to enforce them.

Step 9.  Navigate to the WebQuest “The US, Constitution, and Northwest Tribes”

Step 10.     Distribute copies of the CBA Constitutional Issues Rubric and refer to it as you navigate through the WebQuest.

Step 11.     Teach the preparation techniques as needed:

  1. Information on how to organize and write the PSA is available at the “Community Toolbox” web site:  http://ctb.ku.edu/en/tablecontents/sub_section_tools_1065.aspx
  2. Also see Press Writing: http://www.press-release-writing.com/newsletters/t54-psa.htm
  3. Lesson on How to Teach Public Service Announcements http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/mytube-changing-world-with-1069.html?tab=4#tabs

Step 12.   Let your students explore!  Support your students as needed.  Suggested ways to showcase student presentations: to other sections, post on your school’s website or your teacher page, post on TeacherTube, VoiceThread or other public sharing site, have an exhibition in the hallway or computer lab where students present, ask questions of their audience, and provide “prizes” for correct responses.

 

Teachers:

In order for this WebQuest to be meaningful and engaging, students really need to look at issues in their back yard.  This activity really gets them delving into the powers granted in the Constitution, and what powers it, in turn, grants to others—in this case, the tribes in your area.  Moreover, students get to see the Constitution in action shortly after its ratification and today.  That the research and questioning from eighteen and nineteenth century events and documents directly relates to today’s issues really emphasizes to students that American Indian future is directly contained in these historical events.  Some points to consider as you and your class study:

  1. Hundreds of court cases have been argued to ensure the enforcement of the Constitutional principles that make Indian treaties “the supreme law of the land.”
  2. Hundreds of issues are in current state and federal courts to ensure the enforcement of treaty rights.
  3. Tribes rely daily on the documents others consider antiquated or outdated.

******************************************************

 The US Constitution, Treaties, and NW Tribes

 

Middle School Public Service Announcement

(Constitutional Issues)

 

Introduction:

If you are a public school student in Washington State, you likely live less than 30 minutes from an Indian tribe and less than 60 minutes from the nearest Indian reservation.  Many public school districts even reside within the boundaries of Indian reservations.

The concept of treaties predates any revolution fought on this continent.  Treaties have been formal agreements made between nations as far back as Ancient Egypt[1].  So, the treaty process was not something contrived by the fledgling United States, it was—and continues to be—a time honored governmental practice that is “the law of the land.” (Article VI, Clause 2)

The US Constitution mentions Indian tribes, treaties, and trade specifically. The Supremacy and Commerce clauses of the US Constitution and the provisions of the London or Jay Treaty that came just a few years after the Constitution was ratified, set the stage for Indian-US relations today.

For Indian nations, the goal has been and will always be the protection of tribal Homelands.  When tribes saw that non-Indian settlement of their land was inevitable, they sought protection under treaties.  With the government-to-government relationship established from the beginning of European settlement of North America, treaties were the natural—and widely accepted—form of negotiation and arbitration for land.  The goals, however, were polar opposites.  Remember: preservation of Homelands was of utmost importance to the tribes entering into treaties that ceded most of their precious homelands.  Thomas Jefferson, on the other hand, shared the sentiment of the times: he  “…sought to keep them [Indian nations] at peace through treaties and through a project of ‘civilization’ that would try to make Indian culture resemble that of the Anglo-Americans.[2]  Those treaties, like the promises made in the earlier Northwest Ordinance, ratified shortly before Congress adopted the US Constitution, were not kept.

 

Task:  Using sources provided in class and on this site, you and your team will create a Public Service Announcement (PSA) that supports or defends your team’s position on the enforcement and/or importance of tribal treaties.

In your presentation, you must respond to the following essential questions:

  • To what degree and in what ways have the promises and agreements made in founding documents been kept?
  • To what degree and in what ways do they continue to affect local tribes?
  • To what degree and in what ways do the ideals set forth in the Constitution compare to the realities of local tribes?
  • Why is it so important that the public understand your position?

Process:

Step 1.    Select a local on which you will focus your study.

Step 2.    First visit their website/s.  Information you will need is:

  1. Brief history of the tribe
  2. Their tribal treaty/ies
  3. A brief list of what they are doing to help Indian (and, more often, non-Indian) communities.
  4. The beliefs, customs, and traditions they hold very important

Step 3.    If you choose, along with your teacher, contact the educational liaison for the tribe.  This will be a lengthy process that your teacher may have already started, so be patient and prepared to continue with or without direct tribal assistance.

Step 4.    Locate their treaty (if they entered into a treaty with the United States) and their governmental constitution (if available).  Some places where you can go online are:

Step 5.    Further develop your group’s position regarding treaties, if you have not done so already.  Make sure it connects to Constitutional principles. Example: The fishing rights of the Yakama Nation stem directly from their treaty made in 1855 with the US Government.  That treaty is, according to the Constitution, the “supreme law of the land.”  And yet the treaty has been difficult to enforce. 

Step 6.    If you and your group have trouble getting started, consider using the brainstorming, evaluating web page content, or using primary resource documents guides from the San Diego Unified School District

Step 7.    Support your position by using the U.S. Constitution, at least one local tribal treaty, and one other primary or secondary document.  Use ReadWriteThink’s “Persuasion Map” to help organize your thinking and supporting details and print it for your teacher.

Step 8.    Make explicit references within the text to sources that provide relevant information and/or support for the position.

Step 9.    Submit your persuasion map to your teacher for approval.

Step 10. Determine the form of your presentation.  The position and its support should appear in one of the following forms:

  • · An oral presentation with visuals that your group presents to your class for evaluation;
  • · A recorded (Podcast and/or Video) public service announcement meant to call others to action; or
  • · If your group finds another innovative, engaging way to present your position, please go to your teacher for approval first.

Step 11.Students should be in their groups to further plan their project, Information on how to organize and write the PSA is available at the “Community Toolbox” web site:  http://ctb.ku.edu/en/tablecontents/sub_section_tools_1065.aspx   Also see Press Writing: http://www.press-release-writing.com/newsletters/t54-psa.htm

Step 12. Use the PSA Planning Worksheet to create a storyboard for your PSA.

Step 13. Use the PSA Rubric to guide your planning.

Step 14.Submit your plan to your teacher for approval.

Step 15.Begin production!!

Evaluation:  Respond to the following questions in paragraph form.  Prepare to submit to your teacher.

  1. What do you realize now that you did not before this unit of study?
  2. What do you hope you successfully communicated to others?
  3. If you were to do this project again, what would your group do differently?
  4. What action might you take as an individual of your community to address the issue?  A letter? A simple clarification when someone misinterprets treaty issues in the media or in conversation?  Something else?


 

Learning Log:

Use this format to note key concepts, ideas, connections, and surprises from today’s lesson.  Note any questions you still have.

 

Topic:

Questions/Topic Headings:

Name:__________________________________

Class: __________________________________

Period: __________________________________

Date: __________________________________

 

Concepts/Ideas/Connections/Surprises:

                                  Summary:

 

You are becoming more knowledgeable on Indian issues, not just for the sake of knowledge, but in hopes that you will pass on their knowledge to others (much like tribes do with their children).  This is why you need to challenge yourselves to take the PSA assignment seriously.  It could potentially reach beyond your classroom or school.

PSA Planning Worksheet

Name:_______________________________________Class:______________________

 

Directions:  As you and your group plan your public service announcement (PSA), use this worksheet to plan.  You have at most 30 seconds to send a clear, effective, and simple message.  To develop this message, answer the following:

 

Who is your audience?

_________________________________________________________________________________

Your position statement:

________________________________________________________________________________

What will “hook” their attention?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

What image(s) will keep their attention (for video only)?

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

What will be your ending “punch?” (This gets them to remember your message)

_________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________

Use this timing guide to limit your wording.  You will need to EDIT, EDIT, EDIT to only those words and images that are powerful and essential!

Length of PSA

10 seconds

15 seconds

20 seconds

30 seconds

Number of Words

20-25 words

30-35 words

40-50 words

60-75 words

Script:  Write your script that will be read over radio, the PA at school, or other media source that will best reach your targeted audience.  MAKE THOSE WORDS COUNT!!

(For those making a video, include a sketch or description of your images along with your script.)

Image #1: Image #2:
Script:

Word count:___Script:

Word count:___Image #3:Image #4:Script:

Word count:___Script:

Word count:___Image #5:Image #6:Script:

Word count:___Script:

Word count:___

  • Time it—practice your script over and over, determine where you’ll emphasize certain words, insert dramatic pauses, speed up, or slow down.  Remember, your maximum is 30 seconds.
  • Record it—video or audio.  Remember, the locations where you shoot are every bit as important as your message when making a video.  When making an audio recording, make sure you are in a very quiet place.
  • Present it—to your teacher and class.
  • Where to go next?  Perhaps you’d like a larger audience than your classroom.  Make arrangements to share it with your school (on the PA, on closed-circuit TV).
  • Taking it beyond your school.  If you want an even broader audience, take a look at the “Community Tool Box” web site to get directions on how to make formal requests of radio and TV stations.  The format of your PSA will need to change a bit, but there are examples that show you how to do it.

[1] Bellisimo, Daniel, U of PA.  http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~humm/Topics/Contracts/treat01.html

Edmund Aloysius Walsh. The History and Nature of International Relations. New York: Macmillan, 1922.

[2] Jefferson’s West:  Jefferson’s Enlightenment and American Indians. Website: Monticello, Home of Thomas Jefferson. February 2003, Date of Access: 21 September 2008. http://www.monticello.org/jefferson/lewisandclark/virginiaindian.html